Waec 2021 Commerce Answer


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Commerce-Obj;
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(1a)
-TABULATE-

-MERGER-
(i) Two or more individual companies join to form a new business entity.
(ii) A merger is agreed upon by mutual consent of the involved parties.
(iii) The merged entity operates under a new name.
(iv) The parties involved in a merger are of similar stature, size, and scale of operations.
(v) There is dilution of power between the involved companies.
(vi) The merged company issues new shares.

-ACQUISITION-
(i) One company completely takes over the operations of another.
(ii) The decision of acquisition might not be mutual.
(iii) The acquired company mostly operates under the name of the parent company.
(iv) The acquiring company is larger and financially stronger than the target company.
(v) The acquiring company exerts absolute power over the acquired one.
(vi) New shares are not issued.

(1b)
(Choose any 5)
(i) Commerce promotes rapid transfer of both oral and written messages through communication.

(ii) Commerce facilitates exchange of goods and services which people all over the nation enjoy produced within or outside their own nation.

(iii) Commerce creates revenue/wealth for the nation through collection of tariff duties royalties and tourism.

(iv) Commerce makes for the protection against risk in the day-to-day business operations through insurance.

(v) Commerce creates awareness of the existence of goods and services through advertising.

(vi) Commerce ensures that goods and produced are stored until needed, thus making sure that there is steady supply of goods for the nation through warehousing.

(vii) Commerce offers employment to a large number of people in a nation such as traders, retailers, wholesalers, bankers brokers.

(viii) Commerce provides money and banking facilities through creation of means of payment, loans and advances.

(ix) Commerce assist in movement of people, materials and finished goods from production point to consumption point.

(x) Commerce encourages cooperate and friendliness among nations.

(xi) Commerce improves peoples standard of living through provision of varieties of goods and services.

OR

(1a) A Merger occurs when two separate entities combine forces to create a new, joint organization. while; An Acquisition refers to the takeover of one entity by another. The two terms have become increasingly blended and used in conjunction with one another.

(1b) -Choose any 5-
(i) Commerce promotes rapid transfer of both oral and written messages through communication.

(ii) Commerce facilitates exchange of goods and services which people all over the nation enjoy produced within or outside their own nation.

(iii) Commerce creates revenue/wealth for the nation through collection of tariff duties royalties and tourism.

(iv) Commerce makes for the protection against risk in the day-to-day business operations through insurance.

(v) Commerce creates awareness of the existence of goods and services through advertising.

(vi) Commerce ensures that goods and produced are stored until needed, thus making sure that there is steady supply of goods for the nation through warehousing.

(vii) Commerce offers employment to a large number of people in a nation such as traders, retailers, wholesalers, bankers brokers.

(viii) Commerce provides money and banking facilities through creation of means of payment, loans and advances.

(ix) Commerce assist in movement of people, materials and finished goods from production point to consumption point.

(x) Commerce encourages cooperate and friendliness among nations.

(xi) Commerce improves peoples standard of living through provision of varieties of goods and services.
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5bi)
A bill of lading : is a legal document issued by a carrier to a shipper that details the type, quantity, and destination of the goods being carried. A bill of lading is a document of title, a receipt for shipped goods, and a contract between a carrier and shipper.

While

Consignment : Note means the document containing all the particulars of the Goods issued by the Carrier for the movement of the Consignment delivered to the Customer by the Carrier.

5bii)
Bill of sight: Bill of sight is a document that a person importing that a person importing goods who cannot fully describe them, gives to the customs authorities, allowing them to examine the goods when they arrive.

5c)

(i) Increased Price of The Product: Advertising increases the cost of the product as the expenses on it form the part of the total cost of the product. The increased prices are borne by the consumers.

(ii) Multiplication of Needs: Advertising creates artificial demand for the product and induces people to buy those products which are not needed by them. On account of its repetition, it allures and creates a desire in the minds of the people to possess an article not required by them.

(iii) Deceptive: Sometimes advertising is used as an instrument of cheating. In order to impress upon the people false statements are given with regard to different virtues of a product.

(iv) It Leads to Monopoly: Advertising sometimes leads to monopoly in a particular brand of a product. By investing large sums in advertising of his brand, a big producer eliminates small producers of the same product from the market and creates brand monopoly. This leads to exploitation of consumers.

(v) Harmful For the Society: Sometimes advertisements are un-ethical and objectionable. Most often, these carry indecent language and virtually nude photographs in order to attract the customers. This adversely affects the social values.

(vi) Wastage of Precious National Resources: A serious drawback levied against the advertisement is that it destroys the utility of certain products before their normal life. The latest and improved model of a product leads to the elimination of old ones.

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(7a)
Economic grouping may be defined as the coming together of different countries with a common economic interest and goals with a view to promoting economic cooperation and development among member States.

(7bi)
(i)the sustainable and equitable management of Lake Chad and other shared water resources

(ii)the preservation of ecosystems

(iii)the promotion of integrating and preserving of peace and transboundary security in the Lake Chad Basin.

(7bii)
(i)Promotion of Cooperation and development.

(ii)Harmonization of Agricultural, Economic, Monetary and Industrial Policies.

(iii)Abolition of trade restrictions and Customs Duties. …

(7biii)
(i)To ensure the most effective utilization of the resources of the river.

(ii)To streamline the construction of dams on the Niger.

(iii) To ensure the most effective use of the Niger water
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(3a)
(i) It is used as a medium of exchange;
(ii) It serves as a standard of deferred payment. Goods can be bought on credit and payment made in a month’s time
(iii) Unit of Account: Money serves as a standard and numerical unit of measurement of market value of goods and services
(iv) It serves as a store of value which enables money to be kept for use in future.

(3b)
(i) A bull market is the condition of a financial market in which prices are rising or are expected to rise.

(ii) A jobber is an independent dealer in securities. He only deals with brokers who are associated with the investors.

(iii) A stockbroker is a professional trader who buys and sells shares on behalf of clients. The stockbroker may also be known as a registered representative or an investment advisor.

(iv)Stag is a slang term for a short-term speculator a day trader, for example who attempts to profit from short-term market movements by quickly moving in and out of positions.

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(4a)
[Pick any FIVE]
(i) Cash payment
(ii) Cheque
(iii) Bill of exchange
(iv) Money order
(v) Credit cards
(vi) Bank draft

(4b)
(i) Accounting purposes: Accounting software enables a business to quickly and accurately obtain large- and small-scale pictures of the company’s financial situation. All the employees need to do is to input his financial information into the software which helps the employees understand everything about the financial health of the business’ operations

(ii) Document creation: Most businesses will need to produce numerous documents, either in the form of written documents or spreadsheets. Computers provide word processors and spreadsheet software to help with this.

(iii) Marketing: With a computer, a business can create and execute entire marketing campaigns that span across every social media platform on the internet. The business can create ads to run on websites and social media platforms, using special software, and it can also buy marketing services from other businesses.

(iv) Storage purposes: Computers also enable a business to store its data in different ways. The business could store the data in a central location, and it could have other computers on the network access the data whenever the business needs to; when the business has the permission to; or, when the business could store the data locally on individual computers.

(v) Communication purposes:
When it comes to establishing contact with clients, computers are a vital tool; they are also vital when it comes to maintaining that contact. This is a very important computer application in business, enabling a business to communicate with its clients via email, IM, Skype, collaboration software, and via various other communication solutions that a business might wish to use.
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2i)
interest is income that lenders (usually banks) make on loans. WHILE profit is the net result of a company’s income (after all charges are accounted for) whether that company is a bank or not.

(2ii)
Share is the capital of the company, but Debenture is the debt of the company. The shares represent ownership of the shareholders in the company. WHILE debentures represent indebtedness of the company.

(2iii)
Ordinary shares, also called common shares, are stocks sold on a public exchange WHILE Preference shares are company stock with dividends that are paid to shareholders before common stock .

(2iv)
Cumulative preference shares give the shareholder a right to dividends that may have been missed in the past WHILE participating preference shares are shares that received additional income by participating in the further sharing

(2v)
cum div; These is to refer to a stock trading such that buyers qualify to receive the next dividend payment. Stocks trade cum dividend until the fifth business day before the record date WHILE ex div denotes the sale or transfer of stocks or shares exclusive of the next dividend
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NUMBER 6

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