Waec May/June 2023 Geography Obj & Essay Answers

Waec May/June 2023 Geography Obj & Essay Answers



===========SECTION A========



(i) Lack of access to finance: Many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries struggle to access finance due to limited financial infrastructure, restrictive lending policies, and high-interest rates.

(ii) Poor infrastructure: Developing countries often lack adequate infrastructure, such as reliable power, transportation, and communication systems, which can hinder the growth of industries.

(iii) Limited access to technology: Many developing countries have limited access to technology and knowledge, which can make it difficult for industries to adopt more advanced production methods and improve efficiency.

(iv) Inadequate policy and legal frameworks: Developing countries often lack policies and legal frameworks that support the growth of industries and protect businesses from external factors such as corruption and unfair competition.

(v) Limited human resources: Developing countries often face a shortage of skilled and educated workers, which can limit the growth and productivity of industrial sectors.

(iv) Political instability: Ongoing political conflict, social unrest, and unstable governance can create uncertainty and discourage foreign investment, which can hinder the growth of industrial sectors.

(i) Access to finance: Improved access to finance through microfinance institutions, government loan programs, and foreign investment can provide capital for industries to expand and invest in new technologies and equipment.

(ii) Infrastructure development: Investment in infrastructure such as transportation networks, power generation, and communication systems can provide the necessary foundations for industrial growth.

(iii) Technology transfer: International partnerships and knowledge-sharing programs can facilitate the transfer of technology and expertise to support local industries.

(iv) Favorable policy and legal frameworks: The development of favorable policies and legal frameworks that promote competition, provide incentives for investment, and protect businesses can create an enabling environment for industrial growth.

(v) Education and training: Investment in education and training programs can improve human capital and develop a skilled workforce that supports the growth and productivity of industrial sectors.

(vi) Political stability and security: Improved political stability and security can reduce uncertainty and create a favorable climate for foreign investment and industrial growth.


(i) Shortage Of Raw Materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.
(ii) Political Instability: Frequent changes in governments and incessant civil wars in african countries discourage foreign investors.
(iii) Inadequate skilled man-power: Skilled man-power required for high industrial growth is grossly inadequate in developing countries.
(iv) Poor Management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in developed countries and these are indicators of poor management.
(v) Competition from foreign goods: Because of the high quality of foreign goods other industries usually not be patronised.

(i) Acquisition of Skills: Skills should be acquired by people through regular training.
(ii) Good government policies: There should be good government policies to protect the industries.
(iii) Establishment of more power plants: Power plants such as thermal electricity plants should be established to boost power supply to industries.
(iv) Increase in wages/salaries of workers: There should be increase in wages/salaries of workers in industries to boost their morales and increase productivity.
(v) Creation of Industrial Zones: These will also provide conducive environment with all the infrastructure facilities for industrialization.

(i) Sparse population density: rural areas in tropical Africa typically have a low population density compared to urban areas.
(ii) Agriculture-based economy: most rural settlements in tropical Africa are engaged in agricultural activities such as crop cultivation and livestock farming.
(iii) Subsistence farming: rural communities in tropical Africa typically engage in subsistence farming, where they produce only enough food to meet their daily needs.
(iv) Traditional housing: rural dwellings in tropical Africa are typically made from locally sourced materials such as mud, thatch, and wood.
(v) Limited access to modern amenities: rural areas often lack access to modern amenities such as clean water, electricity, and healthcare facilities.
(vi) Strong communal bonds: rural communities in tropical Africa tend to have strong communal bonds with shared goals and values.

(i) Marketing and distribution of agricultural products from rural areas to urban areas
(ii) Provision of services such as healthcare, education, and financial services by urban centers
(iii) Supply of manufactured goods and consumer products to rural areas
(iv) Migration from rural areas to urban centers in search of better economic opportunities and education
(v) Investment by urban businesses in rural areas, particularly in agriculture
(vi) Policy decisions made by urban governments that affect rural areas, such as land use policies and infrastructure development.


(i) Agricultural economy: Rural settlements in tropical Africa are predominantly agrarian, with agriculture being the primary economic activity. People rely on subsistence farming, livestock rearing, and small-scale agricultural production for their livelihoods.
(ii) Traditional housing: Rural settlements often have traditional housing structures made of locally available materials such as mud, thatch, or wood. These structures are designed to suit the local climate and cultural preferences.
(iii) Limited infrastructure: Rural settlements in tropical Africa often lack adequate infrastructure compared to urban areas. Basic amenities like electricity, clean water supply, healthcare facilities, and transportation networks may be limited or lacking altogether.
(iv) Close-knit communities: Rural settlements typically have close-knit communities with strong social ties and communal values. People often live in extended family units and engage in collective activities such as farming, celebrations, and community decision-making.
(v) Limited access to services: Due to their remote locations, rural settlements may have limited access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and government institutions. Access to quality education and healthcare facilities may be inadequate, resulting in challenges for rural residents.

(i) Market access: Rural settlements rely on urban settlements as market centers for selling their agricultural produce and acquiring necessary goods and services that are not available locally. Urban centers act as economic hubs where rural farmers can sell their surplus produce and purchase items they cannot produce themselves.
(ii) Supply of goods and services: Rural settlements depend on urban settlements for the supply of goods and services that are not available in rural areas. This includes items like machinery, fertilizers, construction materials, healthcare services, and educational resources.
(iii) Employment opportunities: Many rural inhabitants depend on urban settlements for employment opportunities. People may migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of better job prospects and higher wages, particularly in non-agricultural sectors such as manufacturing, construction, and services.
(iv) Transportation and connectivity: Rural settlements often rely on urban centers for transportation and connectivity. Urban areas typically have better road networks, public transportation systems, and access to telecommunications infrastructure. Rural residents may travel to urban areas for education, healthcare, and to connect with wider social networks.
(v) Government services and administration: Rural settlements often depend on urban settlements for government services and administration. Government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and other essential services are usually concentrated in urban areas. Rural residents may need to travel to urban centers to access these services or engage with government institutions.


(i) Efficient Movement of Goods: Rail transportation allows for the efficient movement of goods across long distances. It can accommodate large quantities of cargo, making it an ideal mode of transport for industries such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing in tropical Africa. This efficiency helps stimulate trade and economic growth.

(ii) Reduced Congestion: Compared to road transportation, rail systems help alleviate congestion on major highways. By diverting a significant portion of freight traffic to rail, the congestion on roads is reduced, resulting in smoother traffic flow, decreased travel times, and improved road safety.

(iii) Lower Environmental Impact: Rail transportation is more environmentally friendly compared to road transport. Trains emit less carbon dioxide per ton of freight compared to trucks, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This advantage is crucial for tropical Africa’s sustainability efforts and can contribute to mitigating climate change impacts.

(iv) Enhanced Connectivity: Rail networks provide enhanced connectivity by linking remote areas and cities, facilitating economic integration and regional development. They enable access to markets, resources, and employment opportunities, boosting trade, tourism, and economic activities across tropical Africa.

(v) Increased Accessibility: Rail systems provide reliable and accessible transportation for both passengers and goods. They offer a cost-effective means of travel, making it easier for people to commute between cities and towns, visit tourist destinations, and access essential services such as healthcare and education. This accessibility helps bridge the gap between rural and urban areas.

(vi) Job Creation: Developing rail infrastructure in tropical Africa generates employment opportunities in various sectors. From construction and maintenance to operation and management, rail projects create jobs for engineers, technicians, drivers, station staff, and support personnel. This job creation contributes to economic development and poverty reduction.

(vii) Long-term Cost Savings: While initial investments in rail infrastructure may be significant, in the long run, rail transport can be cost-effective. Railways have lower operating costs compared to road transport due to lower fuel consumption, reduced vehicle maintenance, and decreased road damage. These cost savings can be beneficial for both businesses and governments.

(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Many countries in tropical Africa have outdated and inadequate rail infrastructure. The existing rail networks often suffer from poor maintenance, outdated technology, and insufficient capacity. This results in slower speeds, frequent breakdowns, and limited connectivity, hindering the smooth movement of goods and passengers.

(ii) Funding Constraints: Lack of adequate funding is a major challenge for rail projects in tropical Africa. Limited financial resources lead to delays in infrastructure upgrades, repairs, and expansion, hampering the overall efficiency of rail transportation.

(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Due to financial constraints and lack of technical expertise, rail infrastructure in tropical Africa often suffers from inadequate maintenance. This results in deteriorating tracks, bridges, and signaling systems, leading to frequent disruptions, delays, and safety concerns.

(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Many rail networks in tropical Africa suffer from a lack of interconnectivity, limiting their reach and effectiveness. Incomplete or fragmented rail systems make it challenging to transport goods seamlessly across different regions, hindering economic integration and trade.

(v) Inefficient Operations: Inefficient operations and management practices contribute to the problems facing rail transportation in tropical Africa. Factors such as outdated technology, inadequate training of staff, and suboptimal scheduling and coordination lead to delays, inefficiencies, and reduced service quality.

(vi) Insecurity: Rail transportation in tropical Africa often faces security challenges such as vandalism, theft, and sabotage. These incidents not only disrupt operations but also pose risks to the safety of passengers and cargo.

(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Increased investment in rail infrastructure by seeking partnerships with international organizations, private sector entities, and foreign investors can provide the necessary funding for infrastructure upgrades, expansion, and modernization, thereby improving the capacity and quality of rail networks.
(ii) Funding Constraints: Governments can offer incentives and create a conducive business environment to encourage private sector participation.
(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Government should establish a dedicated maintenance fund for rail infrastructure, ensuring a regular and sufficient budget allocation for maintenance activities and also train and employ skilled maintenance personnel.
(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Improved coordination and planning are required to enhance interconnectivity between different rail lines and modes of transport.
(v) Inefficient Operations: Implementing modern management practices, training programs, and technological upgrades can address these issues.
(vi) Insecurity: Strengthening security measures, implementing surveillance systems, and increasing law enforcement presence can help mitigate these risks.


(i) Rail transportation is the most convenient means of transportation bulky goods (raw amd manufactured goods) to and from industrial areas.
(ii) It is very cheap in the transportation of people and goods from place to place.
(iii) It helps to open up new land which is potentially good for minerals and agricultural crops.
(iv) Rail Transportation provides a means of bringing bulky imported goods from the ports into the interior of the country.
(v) Create access to parts of the country which are far from navigable waterways.

(i) Lack of spare parts, narrow gauges with single tracks.
(ii) Lack of technical know-how and poor maintenance.
(iii) Inadequate Financing or Funding.
(iv) It had very low patronage and high competition with not her forms of transport.

(i) Spare parts should be made available always.
(ii) People should be trained on rail maintenance.
(iii) Rail Transportation should be properly funded.
(iv) Railway fare should be cheap enough to attract passenger

======= SECTION B =======

(4a) Internal Trade also know as Domestic trade is the type of trade which involves the buying and selling or exchange of goods and services within the country.

(i) Low technology generally does not improve internal trade.
(ii) Inter communal strife or political instability do slow down internal trade.
(iii) Similarity of products for limit internal trade in nigeria.
(iv) Smuggling of products to neighboring countries thereby, causing artificial scarcity limit internal trade.
(v) High Rate of rural-urban migrations.
(vi) High level of pests and diseases attack on crops, leading to low harvest.
(vii) Unfavorable climate which can lead to low yield and harvest.

(i) Fosters regional Cooperation: Internal trade fosters regional cooperation.
(ii) Provision of Job Opportunity: It also provides employment to many people involved in trade.
(iii) Growth of Ancillary Services: Internal trade emails the growth of ancillary services like agro-allied industry and banking.
(iv) Provision of raw materials: Internal trade provides raw materials for industries e.g. tomato juice/paste.
(v) Source of Income: Internal trade provides income to individuals and the nation.
(vi) Diffusion of Ideas: Internal trade also promotes the diffusion of ideas when people from different regions come together.


(4a) Internal trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and services within the geographical boundaries of a country. It involves the exchange of goods and services between different regions, states or cities within the country.

(i) Poor infrastructure: Nigeria’s poor road network, insufficient transport systems, and inadequate storage facilities make it difficult to move goods from one location to another, resulting in delays, high transportation costs, and damage to goods.
(ii) Regulatory challenges: The lack of a transparent and consistent regulatory framework for internal trade in Nigeria has led to a proliferation of informal markets and smuggling. This results in unfair competition for formal businesses, loss of government revenue, and reduced consumer protection.
(iii) Multiple taxation: The multiplicity of taxes imposed on traders, including local government levies, state taxes, and federal duties, makes trading in Nigeria very expensive, reducing profitability for traders.
(iv) Inadequate access to credit: Many traders in Nigeria do not have access to affordable credit, making it difficult for them to expand their businesses, meet their financial obligations, and access new markets.

(v) Corruption: Bribery and extortion of traders by government officials, security forces, and market leaders have been a persistent problem in Nigeria, discouraging many from engaging in formal internal trade.
(vi) Insecurity: Insurgency, banditry, and other forms of violence in different parts of Nigeria have adversely affected internal trade, discouraging traders from entering certain regions, causing loss of life and property, and disrupting supply chains.

(4c) (i) Economic growth: Internal trade drives economic growth by promoting the exchange of goods and services between regions, stimulating competition, encouraging innovation, and creating jobs.
(ii) Poverty reduction: Internal trade provides income and employment opportunities for many Nigerians, particularly those in the informal sector, helping to reduce poverty in the country.
(iii) Regional integration: Internal trade promotes regional integration by encouraging the exchange of goods and services between different regions, enhancing economic cooperation and social cohesion.
(iv) Enhanced food security: Internal trade promotes access to food in different regions, ensuring that people have enough food to eat, no matter where they live. This is particularly important in times of food shortages or when certain foods are unavailable in a particular region.



(5b) 1. High annual rainfall: Rainfall in tropical rainforests can exceed 250cm annually.
2. Dense vegetation: The forest floor in a tropical rainforest is usually covered with a thick layer of vegetation, which makes movement difficult.
3. High biodiversity: Tropical rainforests are home to a wide range of plant and animal species.
4. Warm and humid climate: Temperature and humidity levels are relatively high in tropical rainforests, with average temperatures of 25°C.

(5c) 1. Timber production: Rainforests are valuable sources of hardwood timber, which is used for construction, furniture making, and other purposes.
2. Medicinal plants: Many plants in tropical rainforests have medicinal properties and are used to treat various ailments.
3. Ecotourism: Rainforests attract tourists from all over the world, who come to see the unique plants and animals found in this habitat.
4. Petroleum: Many of Nigeria’s oil reserves are found in rainforest areas.
5. Carbon sequestration: The trees in rainforests absorb


(i) Cultural and Recreational Significance: Rivers hold cultural and recreational value in Nigeria. They are often considered sacred or significant in local traditions and folklore. Additionally, rivers provide opportunities for recreational activities such as fishing, boating, and water sports, attracting tourists and promoting local economies.
(ii) Transportation and Trade: Rivers serve as important transportation routes for both goods and people. Nigerian rivers facilitate inland navigation, connecting various regions and enabling the movement of goods, such as agricultural produce, minerals, and manufactured products. The Niger River, for instance, has been a vital trade route for centuries
(iii) Irrigation and Agriculture: Nigerian rivers play a crucial role in supporting agricultural activities. They provide water for irrigation, allowing farmers to cultivate crops even during dry seasons. River systems like the Sokoto-Rima and the Hadejia-Jama’are have been instrumental in supporting agricultural practices in northern Nigeria.
(iv) Hydroelectric Potential: Rivers in Nigeria offer substantial hydroelectric potential. Many rivers, such as the Niger and the Benue, have been harnessed to generate electricity through hydropower plants. These rivers contribute to Nigeria’s power generation capacity and support economic development.
(v) Diversity of Flora and Fauna: Nigerian rivers are home to a rich and diverse range of plant and animal species. The rivers support various ecosystems, including mangroves, wetlands, and freshwater habitats, providing habitats for numerous species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

(i) Fishing and Aquaculture: Rivers in Nigeria support vibrant fishing and aquaculture industries. They provide habitats for a diverse range of fish species, contributing to the country’s fish production
(ii) Agriculture and Irrigation: Rivers are crucial for agriculture, providing water for irrigation. Nigerian farmers rely on rivers to irrigate their fields, enabling the cultivation of crops even during dry seasons
(iii) Transportation: Rivers serve as natural transportation routes, facilitating the movement of goods and people. In Nigeria, rivers like the Niger, the Benue, and the Cross River are utilized for inland navigation, allowing for the transport of goods, including agricultural produce, minerals, and manufactured products
(iv) Hydropower Generation: Nigerian rivers have great potential for hydropower generation. Hydroelectric power plants harness the energy of flowing water to generate electricity. Rivers such as the Niger, the Benue, and the Ogun have been tapped for hydropower, contributing to Nigeria’s electricity generation capacity and reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
(v) Water Supply: Rivers are a significant source of freshwater for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. They provide a reliable water supply for drinking, irrigation, livestock watering, and various industrial processes. River water is essential for sustaining livelihoods, supporting economic activities, and ensuring the well-being of communities.
(vi) Tourism and Recreation: Rivers have significant tourism and recreational value in Nigeria. Scenic river landscapes, waterfalls, and riverine ecosystems attract tourists and nature enthusiasts. Rivers provide opportunities for activities like boating, canoeing, fishing, and wildlife watching


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