Neco 2023 Geography (Objective & Practical) Answers

Neco 2023 Geography (Objective & Practical/ Physical) Answers








(i) Solstice means longer days in summer and longer nights in winter while Equinox means equal days and equal nights
(ii) Solstice occurs on June 21st and December 22nd while Equinox occurs on March 21st and September 23rd
(iii) Solstice could be summer or winter while Equinox could be spring or autumn

(i) The length of the lines of latitudes decrease with distance from the equator.
(ii) All lines of latitude are circles parallel to the equator.
(iii) The equator is the starting point for measuring latitude and is designated as 0 degrees latitude.
(iv) The maximum latitude is 90 degrees, which occurs at the North Pole (90 degrees North) and the South Pole (90 degrees South)
(v) The spacing between lines of latitude varies with the distance from the equator.

Fold mountains are created where two or more of Earth’s tectonic plates are pushed together. At these colliding, compressing boundaries, rocks and debris are warped and folded into rocky outcrops, hills, mountains, and entire mountain ranges. Fold mountains are created through a process called oroge.

Volcanic mountains form through volcanic activity, where magma rises to the Earth’s surface through vents or fissures. Eruptions release lava, ash, and gases, building up layers around the vent. The accumulated materials shape the mountain into a cone with steep slopes and a pointed summit. These mountains are typically found in subduction zones or hotspots, where tectonic plate movements create intense heat and pressure, leading to the formation of magma. Over time, recurrent eruptions can add to the mountain’s height and change its appearance.

Block mountains are formed by the displacement of crustal blocks along faults. Tectonic forces uplift one block, creating steep cliffs, while the adjacent block sinks, forming a gentler slope. These mountains often occur in regions with significant tectonic activity, where large faults accommodate the movement of the Earth’s crust.


(i) Convectional rainfall: In areas intensively heated, hot/warm air rises accompanied by rise in relative humidity. Rising air becomes saturated and water vapour condenses with cloud formed quickly and heavy rains accompanied by thunder and lightening. It is characterised by heavy winds, lightening and thunder. Rain falls within limited areas usually in the afternoons. Clear skies immediately after the rain and hailstone may occur.

(ii) Relief or Orographic rainfall: Moist air is forced to rise above a mountain/relief barrier usually on the windward slopes of mountains. Rising air expands and becomes cooler and relative humidity rises and air becomes saturated. Water vapour condenses, cloud is formed with rainfall on the windward slope and descending air on the leeward side.
It is associated with mountainous regions with even distribution of rainfall over a highland. Windward area has rainfall while leeward side has little or no rainfall and associated with ascending and descending wind.

(i)Lapse Rate:
The lapse rate refers to the rate at which the air temperature changes with altitude. It is usually expressed in degrees Celsius per kilometer (°C/km) or degrees Fahrenheit per thousand feet (°F/1000 ft). The two main types of lapse rates are the environmental lapse rate and the adiabatic lapse rates.

(ii) Inversion:
Inversion is a weather phenomenon where there is a reversal of the normal lapse rate. Instead of the temperature decreasing with altitude, it starts increasing. Inversion layers act as a lid, trapping cooler air near the surface under a layer of warmer air aloft. This inversion layer prevents vertical mixing of the atmosphere, leading to stable atmospheric conditions.

(iii) Dew Point:
This is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated with water vapor and starts to condense into liquid water, such as dew, fog, or clouds. When the air temperature cools to the dew point, it reaches 100% relative humidity.


(5ai) Weathering is breaking down rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials by contacting the atmosphere, water, and biological organisms of the Earth.

(5aii) [PICK ANY TWO]
(i) Temperature
(ii) Moisture
(iii) Oxygen
(iv) Carbon dioxide
(v) Acid rain

(i) Oxidation
(ii) Hydration
(iii) Carbonation

(i) Oxidation – The chemical reaction between oxygen and minerals causes them to break down into smaller pieces or change their composition.
(ii) Hydration – Water molecules in the atmosphere combine with minerals, resulting in the formation of new minerals, or altering their existing composition.
(iii) Carbonation – Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with certain minerals, causing them to dissolve or break down into smaller pieces.

(i) Arcuate.
(ii) Bird’s Foot.
(iii) Estuarine Delta.

(i) Arcuate: This delta consists of both coarse and fine sediments and has the shape of an inverted cone. It is crossed by many distributaries. Very good examples of Arcuate deltas are the Niger (Nigeria), Nile (Egypt) and Hwan – Ho.

(ii) Bird’s Foot: This delta consists of very fine materials referred to as “silt” with several long distributaries like the foot of a bird extending into the sea. The Mississippi Delta and the Delta of Omo River in Ethiopia are good examples.

(iii) Estuarine Delta: This delta is formed from materials deposited in the submerged mouth of a river. It takes the shape of the estuary. A typical example of this type of delta can be located in River Seine (Netherlands) and River Vistula (Poland).

(i) It is good for transportation. i.e. Ports.
(ii) It is equally good for petroleum mining.
(iii) Delta provides a good agricultural land especially for cultivation of rice, oil palm and raffia palm. e.g. River Niger.
(iv) It is also good for fishing.

(7ai) Renewable resources: These are natural resources that can be replenished or regenerated within a human lifespan or at a faster rate than they are consumed. They are considered sustainable as they can be used without depleting the resource itself. Examples of renewable resources include solar energy, water, wind power and plant life.

(7aii) Non-renewable resources: These are resources that come from a finite source that cannot be replenished in a short period of time. Examples include fossil fuels (such as oil and natural gas), uranium, and gemstones.

(i) Reduced air pollution and water contamination resulting from the extraction and burning of non-renewable resources.
(ii) Increased energy security since reliance on renewable energy sources reduces the vulnerability to price unpredictability associated with non-renewable resources.
(iii) Increased economic development and job creation since renewable energy requires significant investments in technologies, engineering, construction and operations.
(iv) Reduced water use since non-renewable resources usually require more water for extraction and utilization.
(v) Reduced land degradation due to the extraction of non-renewable resources, such as mining and drilling.
(vi) Reduced greenhouse gas emissions since renewable energy does not typically produce as much carbon dioxide (CO2) as burning fossil fuels.


(i) Navigation and mapping: GPS enables accurate positioning on maps, allowing individuals to find their way and plan routes.
(ii) Surveying and mapping: GPS assists in surveying and mapping operations such as measuring distances, angles, and slopes.
(iii) Vehicle Tracking: GPS can be used to track objects or vehicles in real-time, allowing for efficient fleet management and improved security.
(iv) Disaster Management: GPS plays an important role in early warning systems for natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes.
(v) Goods Tracking: GPS is used to track the movement of goods to ensure they reach their destination safely.
(vi) Agriculture: GPS can be used to facilitate precision farming by providing vital information about local soil, terrain, and climate conditions.

(i) Data Acquisition
(ii) Spatial Analysis
(iii) Creation of Maps
(iv) Updating of Maps
(v) Decision Making

(i) Data Acquisition: Both GIS and Remote Sensing systems are used to acquire data which is then used for various applications.
(ii) Spatial Analysis: GIS uses data collected by remote sensing systems to perform spatial analysis, such as analysis of land use or population density.
(iii) Creation of Maps: GIS and Remote Sensing are used together to create maps with geographical and other features.
(iv) Updating of Maps: Remote sensing image data is used to update existing maps and make new maps.
(v) Decision Making: GIS is used to visualize data collected from remote sensing images to make informed decisions.

(i) Lack of Infrastructure:
(ii) Cost Issues
(iii) Limited Resources
(iv) Data Issues
(v) Security Risks:
(vi) Technological Limitations

(i) Lack of Infrastructure: There is a lack of adequate infrastructure for the proper implementation of GIS in Nigeria, such as access to quality Geographic Information data and reliable internet connections.
(ii) Cost Issues: Developing and implementing GIS projects in Nigeria can often be expensive due to the cost of hardware, software, training, and personnel required.
(iii) Limited Resources: There is a lack of skilled personnel and resources to implement GIS projects in Nigeria.
(iv) Data Issues: There is a shortage of quality geographical data available for GIS projects, or the data is often outdated.
(v) Security Risks: If GIS is not properly implemented, there is a risk of unauthorized access to sensitive data.
(vi) Technological Limitations: There may be technological limitations that prevent the full utilization of GIS or hinder its effectiveness.


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