Waec May/June 2023 Physical Geography Answers

Waec May/June 2023 Physical Geography Answers





(3a)(i) Winter.
(ii) Spring.
(iii) Autumn.
(iv) Summer.

(i) Local time varies from one longitude to another at the rate of 4 minutes per degree of longitude.
(ii) Local time varies from place to place within a time zone.
(iii) Local time varies irregularity from longitude to longitude within each time zone.
(iv) Local time does not associate with greenwich mean time.

(i) Standard time varies from one time zone to another one hourly basis of 15° of longitude to 1 hour.
(ii) It maintains the central time for time zone in which they are.
(iii) Standard time falls within 24 time zones.
(iv) Standard time is associated with Greenwich mean time.

Solar Eclipse: This occurs when the moon comes in between the sun and the earth, in a perfect straight line. The moon is capable of blocking the light from the sun. The moon then casts its shadow of darkness on the earth.


(i) Rugged topography
(ii) Absence of surface drainage
(iii) Depression of varying sizes an d depths
(iv) Cliffs
(v) Karst springs
(vi) Tower karsts
(vii) Limestone pavements

(i) Cave systems
(ii) Underground Lakes and Springs
(iii) Sinkholes
(iv) Stalactites and stalagmites
(v) Tunnel systems
(vi) Underground waterfalls

(i) Rich in Mineral Resources: Limestone regions are often abundant in mineral resources. Limestone itself is a valuable rock used in construction, agriculture, and industry. Limestone regions may contain deposits of other minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, and phosphates, which contribute to economic development.

(ii) Fertile Soil: Limestone weathering over time produces fertile soil with high calcium carbonate content. This type of soil is ideal for agriculture, as it provides essential nutrients and helps maintain soil pH levels. Limestone regions often support productive farmland and vibrant ecosystems.

(iii) Water Storage and Supply: Limestone is highly permeable, allowing water to pass through and form underground aquifers. These aquifers act as natural reservoirs, storing water and ensuring a reliable water supply in limestone regions. The porous nature of limestone also facilitates groundwater recharge and reduces surface water runoff, contributing to sustainable water management.

(iv) Scientific exploration: Limestone regions are known for their unique karst landscapes, characterized by sinkholes, underground rivers, and caves. These features provide opportunities for scientific exploration and serves as natural habitats for specialized flora and fauna.

(v) Flood mitigation: Karst systems which is limestone regions are characterised by, can help regulate water flow and mitigate flooding by absorbing excess water during heavy rainfall.

(vi) Tourism and Recreation: Limestone regions often attract tourists due to their scenic beauty and unique geological formations. Caves, cliffs, and underground rivers offer opportunities for activities like cave exploration, rock climbing, hiking, and boating.

(vii) Employment opportunites: Tourism in limestone regions can stimulate local economies, create jobs, and foster environmental awareness and conservation efforts.

(viii) Building Material: Limestone has been used as a building material for centuries. Its durability, aesthetic appeal, and availability make it a preferred choice for constructing structures, monuments, and architectural landmarks. Limestone regions often have an abundant supply of this versatile rock, making it easily accessible for construction purposes.

(i) Solution.
(ii) Suspension.
(iii) Saltation.
(iv) Traction.

(i) Lateral erosion is dominant over vertical erosion, resulting in widen of the valley.
(ii) It had wide V-shaped valleys.
(iii) There is the presence of bluffs, river cliffs, meanders, terraces.
(iv) There is increase in the load of river.
(v) The work of the river is mainly transportation of suspensing and solution.
(vi) The velocity is reduced due to the reduction of gradient.

Interlocking Spur: This refers to the portion of the valley wall which projects from both sides of the concave bends of the river as it meanders. They usually obscure the view of the river valley.


Climate refers to the long-term average conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity, in a specific region.

(i) Latitude: The location of a place in relation to the equator affects its climate. Areas closer to the equator receive more direct sunlight,which results in warmer temperatures and a higher amount of precipitation. Conversely, areas closer to the poles receive less direct sunlight and have colder temperatures and lower precipitation rates.

(ii) Altitude: The higher the altitude of a place, the colder the temperature tends to be. This is because the air pressure decreases with altitude, and as a result, the air expands and cools. Higher altitude areas may also experience more extreme weather conditions, such as frequent thunderstorms or heavy snowfalls.

(iii) Ocean currents: Ocean currents have a significant impact on climate. Warm ocean currents heat up the air above them, leading to warmer temperatures in coastal regions, while cold ocean currents have the opposite effect. The Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, for example, helps to keep Western Europe warmer than other areas at the same latitude.

(iv) Topography: The shape and features of the land can affect climate. Mountain ranges can create rain shadows, with the side of the mountain facing prevailing winds receiving heavy precipitation, while the other side of the mountain is dry. Coastal areas are also influenced by the presence of mountains, with wind patterns and temperatures changing depending on their location in relation to nearby mountains.

(i) High Temperatures:
The equatorial climate is characterized by high temperatures that remain almost thesame throughout the year, with an average temperature of around 27-28°C.

(ii) High Humidity:
Due to the abundance of rainfall, equatorial regions experience high humidity levels that can be as high as 80-90%.

(iii) Abundance of Rainfall:
Equatorial regions receive a lot of rainfall throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of around 2000-4000 mm.

(iv) Limited Seasonal Variation:
There is limited variation in seasons in equatorial regions. The regions experience two wet seasons and two dry seasons, with rainfall being spread out throughout the year.

(v) Dense Vegetation:
Due to high temperatures and abundant rainfall, equatorial regions are characterized by dense vegetation such as tropical rainforests.

(vi) Biodiversity:
Equatorial regions are known for their high levels of biodiversity, with a vast array of unique plant and animal species found in such regions.

(8a) Solar energy refers to the radiant energy emitted by the Sun, which can be harnesses and converted into useful forms of energy such as heat and electricity using photovoltaic cells or solar thermal collectors.

(8b) (i) Renewable and Sustainable: Solar energy is a clean and abundant source of energy that does not deplete natural resources and does not emit harmful pollutants into the environment. This makes it a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source.

(ii) Cost-effective: Once installed, solar energy systems require very little maintenance or operating costs. As the cost of solar technology continues to decrease, it has become increasingly affordable for individuals and businesses to invest in solar energy systems.

(iii) Energy Independence: Solar energy provides a level of energy independence that is not possible with traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources. It allows individuals and communities to generate their own power and reduces their dependence on centralized power grids.

(i) Intermittent Energy Source: Solar energy is an intermittent energy source, meaning it is only available during daylight hours and may vary depending on weather conditions. Energy storage systems such as batteries or pumped hydro storage can be used to overcome this challenge and provide a continuous flow of energy.

(ii) High Initial Costs: Although solar energy is cost-effective in the long run, the initial investment required to install solar panels and other equipment can be high, which may deter some individuals or businesses from investing in solar energy systems.

(iii) Land Use and Environmental Impact: Solar energy systems require a significant amount of land to generate large amounts of electricity, which can potentially impact natural habitats and wildlife. Additionally, the production and disposal of solar panels and other equipment can have environmental impacts if not properly managed.

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