Waec May/June 2023 Civic Education Answers

Waec May/June 2023 Civic Education Answers


Waec May/June 2023 Civic Education Answers






(i) Civic education equips individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become active and informed citizens.
(ii) Civic education is vital for the functioning and strengthening of democratic systems. It helps individuals understand the importance of democratic values.
(iii) Civic education promotes social cohesion by fostering a sense of shared identity, values, and goals within a diverse society.
(iv) Civic education encourages individuals to actively engage in their communities and take responsibility for addressing social issues.
(v) Civic education instills values such as respect, tolerance, integrity, and social responsibility. It helps individuals develop an ethical framework that guides their behavior and decision-making.
(vi) Civic education prepares individuals to be active participants in the global community. It promotes understanding of global issues, cultural diversity, and interdependence.
(vii) Civic education equips individuals with a global perspective, enabling them to understand global challenges, interconnections, and their responsibilities as global citizens.
(viii) Civic education emphasizes the value of diversity, promoting respect for different cultures, beliefs, and identities. It encourages dialogue, understanding, and appreciation of diverse perspectives.

(i) Fostering Civic Knowledge and Understanding: Citizenship education equips individuals with knowledge and understanding of their country’s history, political systems, institutions, and cultural heritage.

(ii) Developing Civic Skills and Competencies: Citizenship education cultivates essential civic skills and competencies, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, effective communication, and collaboration.

(iii) Promoting Active Citizenship and Civic Engagement: Citizenship education encourages active participation in civic and community affairs. It promotes a sense of responsibility and empowers individuals

(iv) Instilling Values and Ethical Behavior: Citizenship education helps instill values such as respect, tolerance, empathy, and integrity. These values promote social cohesion, cooperation, and ethical behavior among citizens.

(v) Cultivating National Identity and Unity: Citizenship education plays a vital role in cultivating a sense of national identity and unity. It helps citizens develop a shared understanding of their nation’s heritage, symbols, traditions, and aspirations.

(vi) Enhancing Democratic Participation: Citizenship education is closely linked to democratic participation. It educates individuals about their rights, responsibilities, and the importance of participating in democratic processes, such as voting etc

(vii) Building Social Cohesion and Understanding: Citizenship education promotes social cohesion by encouraging citizens to appreciate and embrace the diversity within their nation.It emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting different cultures, religions, and perspectives.


(i) CONTENTMENT: This has to do with satisfaction in whatever situation a person find himself. When a person is contented, the person is satisfied in the position he or she finds himself or herself.

(ii) Hard-work: When there is justice people will work hard because they will see the value of their hard work. The government would have done so much on its part when it acts justly. People will not be lazy.

(iii) Diligence: This is the act of skills display, care an putting of thorough effort in doing particular work by someone. The perso who is skillful is required to use his or h professional skill in doing the work. TI person will do the work reasonable as it required with some form of skill.

(iv) Selflessness: This has to do with so much sacrifice on the part of an individual or society. Selflessness is also a situation where a person gives up his luxury for the sake of another or other people. This is done without expecting reward or favour from any one or any member of the society. A selfless person helps people in a community with out asking for any reward. He/She has a leadership quality.

(v) Honesty: Honesty means not telling lies but truth all the time. An honest person is loved in the society and among people. An honest person can be trusted with money and position of authority without any suspicion. When an honest person is voted into position of power, the people are happy because they know that there will be good governance, but when dishonest people are in power wickedness will be rampant.

(i) Nationhood and identity: Citizenship education helps individuals develop a sense of national identity, fostering a shared understanding of values, history, and cultural heritage. It strengthens the bond between citizens and their nation.

(ii) Active citizenship: Civic education empowers individuals to actively participate in civic life, including community development projects, volunteer work, and public service. It encourages citizens to take ownership of their communities and contribute to their improvement.

(iii) Democratic governance: Citizenship education promotes an understanding of democratic principles, processes, and institutions. It equips individuals with knowledge about their rights and responsibilities as citizens, preparing them to engage in democratic decision-making and hold elected representatives accountable.

(iv) Social responsibility: Civic education instills a sense of social responsibility, emphasizing the importance of contributing positively to society. It encourages citizens to be aware of societal issues, such as poverty, inequality.

(v) Peaceful coexistence: Citizenship education promotes respect, understanding, and dialogue among individuals from different backgrounds. It equips citizens with skills to resolve conflicts peacefully.

(i) National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)
(ii) National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
(iii) Nigeria Police Force (NPF)
(iv) Nigerian Customs Service (NCS)
(v) Department of State Services (DSS)
(vi) Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps

(i) Failure to follow medical advice can lead to the progression or worsening of the underlying medical condition.

(ii) Non-adherence can render the prescribed treatment ineffective, leading to inadequate symptom control or disease management.

(iii) Ignoring medical advice can increase the risk of complications and secondary infections. This can prolong the recovery process, worsen symptoms, and even lead to life-threatening situations.

(iv) Non-adherence to preventive measures, such as vaccination or isolation protocols for contagious diseases, can facilitate the spread of infections within the community.

(v) Non-adherence can lead to prolonged illness or the need for more intensive medical interventions, which can result in increased healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole.

(vi) Inappropriate use or premature discontinuation of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

(vii) When patients consistently disregard medical advice, it can reduce trust in healthcare professionals and the healthcare system overall.

(viii) Non-adherence to public health recommendations, such as social distancing or wearing masks during a pandemic, can undermine efforts to control the spread of diseases.



(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values.
(vi)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.


(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

(iv)Limited public awareness and understanding of the dangers and consequences of cultism can hinder eradication efforts.

(v)Cults employ sophisticated techniques of manipulation and indoctrination to control their members’ thoughts, beliefs, and actions


(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

(3a) Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions, connections, and bonds between different communities or ethnic groups within a specific geographical area. It involves the social, cultural, economic, and political interactions that occur among individuals, families, organizations, and institutions from different communities.

(3b) Inter-communal relationships promote community development in Nigeria in several ways:

i. Cultural Exchange and Diversity: Inter-communal relationships provide opportunities for cultural exchange and appreciation. When different communities interact, they share their customs, traditions, languages, arts, and values. This exchange of cultural knowledge and experiences enriches the diversity of Nigerian communities and promotes mutual understanding and tolerance.

ii. Peace and Conflict Resolution: Effective inter-communal relationships contribute to peaceful coexistence and conflict resolution. When communities establish open lines of communication and engage in dialogue, it becomes easier to address misunderstandings, resolve disputes, and prevent conflicts from escalating. Promoting peaceful interactions helps to maintain stability and fosters an environment conducive to development.

iii. Economic Collaboration: Inter-communal relationships can enhance economic development in Nigeria. Communities that collaborate and engage in trade, business partnerships, and resource sharing create economic opportunities and increase productivity. Cooperation among communities can lead to the development of industries, infrastructure, and markets, thereby boosting local economies and improving the living standards of the people.

iv. Social Integration and Unity: Inter-communal relationships foster social integration and unity among diverse groups. When different communities interact positively, stereotypes and prejudices can be challenged and overcome. By promoting inclusivity and a sense of belonging, inter-communal relationships create a unified society where people work together towards common goals, such as education, healthcare, and community development projects.

v. Political Engagement and Representation: Strong inter-communal relationships encourage active political engagement and representation. When communities collaborate, they can collectively advocate for their needs, interests, and rights. This inclusivity helps to ensure that diverse voices are heard in the decision-making processes at various levels of government. It promotes equitable distribution of resources, social justice, and good governance.


(5a) (Pick 3)
i) Mother to child transmission e.g Breast milk.
ii) unprotected sex.
iii) sharing of unsterilized sharp objects.
iv) through unscreened blood transfusion.

(5b) (Pick 3)
i) Too few people with HIV are aware of their infection
ii) Poorly coordinated health system
iii) Poverty
iv) Stigma and discrimination.


The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government, alongside the legislative and judicial branches. The executive arm of government in Nigeria plays a crucial role in governance, policy implementation, and the administration of the country. Its primary function is to execute laws, provide effective leadership, and ensure the well-being and progress of the nation and its citizens. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals. The President of Nigeria is the head of state and the head of government.


The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government. It is responsible for implementing and executing laws, policies, and programs that govern the country. The President of Nigeria is the head of the executive branch, and the office is held by the individual elected through a national election. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(i)Implementation of Laws: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws passed by the legislature.

(ii)Protection of Civil Liberties: The executive branch is responsible for safeguarding the civil liberties and rights of citizens.

(iii)Executive Leadership: The executive arm provides leadership and direction to the government.

(iv)Checks and Balances: The executive branch acts as a check and balance on other branches of government.

(v)International Relations: The executive arm represents the country in international affairs and diplomatic relations.

(vi)Crisis Management and National Security: The executive branch is responsible for managing crises and ensuring national security.

(vii)Accountability to the Legislature and the People: The executive branch is accountable to the legislature and ultimately to the people.

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