Waec Agric Science 2024 Solution Answer

Welcome to “Naijaclass Academy” For Waec Agric Science 2024 Solution Answer


Date: Thursday, 16th May, 2024
Agricultural Science (Essay & Objective)  2:00 pm – 5:00 pm



(i) Facilitates pooling of resources (land, labor, capital) for increased productivity.
(ii) Promotes collective decision-making and risk-sharing among farmers.
(iii) Enables access to inputs, extension services, and marketing channels.
(iv) Encourages the adoption of modern agricultural technologies and practices.
(v) Strengthens the bargaining power of small-scale farmers.

(i) Provides access to land and infrastructure for new settlers.
(ii) Facilitates the establishment of organized and integrated farming communities.
(iii) Promotes the adoption of improved farming techniques and technologies.
(iv) Enhances food production and self-sufficiency at the local and regional levels.
(v) Helps in the diversification of agricultural activities and income sources.

(i) Conducts research to develop and improve crop varieties, livestock breeds, and farming practices.
(ii) Provides extension services and training to farmers on new technologies and best practices.
(iii) Collaborates with local and international partners to address regional agricultural challenges.
(iv) Disseminates research findings and recommendations to farmers and policymakers.
(v) Contributes to the development of sustainable and climate-resilient agricultural systems.

(i) Dibber – Seed drill or planter
(ii) Hoe – Rotary tiller or cultivator
(iii) Sickle – Mower or reaper
(iv) Wheelbarrow – Trailer or wagon
(v) Watering can – Irrigation system or sprinkler

(i) Effective in turning and burying crop residues, weeds, and organic matter.
(ii) Improves soil structure and aeration, leading to better root growth.
(iii) Helps in the control of weeds and pests by burying them.
(iv) Facilitates the incorporation of fertilizers and amendments into the soil.
(v) Contributes to the creation of a smooth and level seedbed for planting.

(i) Energy-intensive and requires significant traction power.
(ii) Can lead to soil compaction and erosion if not managed properly.
(iii) Disrupts the natural soil structure and microbial community.
(iv) Contributes to the release of carbon from the soil, potentially increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
(v) May not be suitable for certain soil types or conservation agriculture practices.

Cooperative farming:
(i)Enables farmers to pool resources, reducing costs and increasing bargaining power.
(ii)Facilitates the sharing of knowledge and technologies among farmers.
(iii)Enhances access to markets for members, improving sales and incomes.

Farm settlement scheme:
(i)Provides land and resources to new farmers, helping to establish new agricultural ventures.
(ii)Encourages the establishment of agricultural communities, fostering collaboration and mutual support.
(iii)Offers training and development programs, raising farming standards and efficiency.

Agricultural research institute:
(i)Conducts research on new agricultural techniques and technologies.
(ii)Develops new crop varieties that are more resistant to pests and diseases, boosting yields.
(iii)Provides extension services to farmers, disseminating knowledge and innovations.

(i) Dibber: A tractor-mounted planter or seed drill.
(ii) Hoe: A cultivator or tiller attachment.
(iii) Sickle: A mower or a sickle bar mower attachment.
(iv) Wheelbarrow: A front-end loader or a utility cart attachment.
(v) Watering can: An irrigation system or sprayer attachment.

(i) It efficiently turns over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface while burying weeds and the previous crop’s residues.
(ii) The plough helps in creating a cleaner and more even seedbed for planting.

(i)it can lead to soil erosion. When the soil is turned over.
(ii)it exposes the lower layers to the elements, which can be particularly detrimental in areas susceptible to wind or water erosion.




Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil, expressed on a scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, values below 7 indicate acidic soil, and values above 7 indicate alkaline soil.

Cover crops are plants grown primarily to protect and enrich soil during periods when main crops are not planted. They help prevent erosion, improve soil health, and manage weeds and pests.

(i) It prevents soil erosion.
(ii) It improves soil fertility.
(iii) It enhances soil structure.
(iv) It suppresses weeds.
(v) It manages pests and diseases.
(vi) It increases biodiversity.
(vii) It enhances water retention and management.

(i) Wild marigold: Tagetes minuta
(ii) Spear grass: Heteropogon contortus
(iii) Stubborn grass: Sida acuta
(iv) Pigweed: Amaranthus retroflexus
(v) Carpet grass: Axonopus fissifolius


(3ai) Rhizobium: Nitrogen fixation in root nodules of leguminous plants.
(3aii) Nitrosomonas: Ammonia oxidation to nitrite.
(3aiii) Pseudomonas: Denitrification, converting nitrate to nitrogen gas.
(3aiv) Nitrobacter: Nitrite oxidation to nitrate.


(i) Reduced yield due to sap-sucking, leading to wilting and stunted growth.
(ii) Transmission of viral diseases.
(ii). Honeydew secretion leading to sooty mold growth.
(iii) Distortion of leaves and flowers.
(iv)Weakened plants, makin them more susceptible to other pests and diseases.

(i) Introducing natural predators like ladybugs and lacewings.
(ii) Companion planting with repellent herbs like mint or marigold.
(iii) Pruning affected plant parts to remove aphid colonies.
(iv) Using reflective mulches to deter aphids.
(v) Regularly inspecting plants for early detection and manual removal of aphids.
(vi) Crop rotation to disrupt aphid life cycles.

(3ci) Forestry refers to the science and practice of managing forests, including conservation, utilization, and regeneration.

(i) Timber and lumber.
(ii) Paper and pulp.
(iii) Medicinal plants and herbs.
(iv) Resins and latex.
(v) Fruits and nuts.
(vi) Wildlife for hunting and ecotourism.
(vii) Non-timber forest products like mushrooms, berries, and honey.

Area of farmland in hectares:
300m x 150m = 45,000 square meters
1 hectare = 10,000 square meters
So, 45,000 sq m / 10,000 sq m/ha = 4.5 hectares

Quantity of sorghum seeds required:
Seed rate = 60 kg/ha
Area = 4.5 ha
Seeds required = 60 kg/ha x 4.5 ha = 270 kg

Quantity of fertilizer required:
Fertilizer rate = 20 kg/ha
Area = 4.5 ha
Fertilizer required = 20 kg/ha x 4.5 ha = 90 kg

(i) Budding involves a single bud, while grafting involves a cutting (scion) joined to a rootstock.
(ii) Budding is typically used for citrus and other small plants, while grafting is used for larger plants like trees.

(i) Orange
(ii) Lemon
(iii) Grapefruit
(iv) Mango

Production ration:
(i) Laying hens (for egg production)
(ii) Dairy cows (for milk production)

Maintenance ration:
(i) Breeding bulls (not in active production)
(ii) Dry cows (not lactating or pregnant)

Removal of excessive vegetation:

(i)Enhances oxygen levels by reducing competition for dissolved oxygen.
(ii)Prevents the accumulation of organic matter, which can lead to water quality issues.
(iii)Reduces the risk of predators finding hiding spots.
(iv)Improves water circulation and sunlight penetration, promoting overall pond health.

Removal of silt:

(i)Prevents the accumulation of bottom sediments
(ii)Maintains adequate water depth, crucial for fish growth and reproduction.
(iii)Improves water clarity, allowing sunlight to penetrate and promoting aquatic plant growth.
(iv)Prevents the depletion of oxygen due to decomposition of organic matter in the silt.

Supplementary feeding:

(i)Stimulates faster fish growth and development.
(ii)Compensates for deficiencies in natural food sources.
(iii)Allows for controlled nutrient input, promoting optimal fish health.
(iv)Maximizes fish production and profitability of the fish farming operation

Fertilizer application:

(i)Stimulates the growth of phytoplankton, a vital food source for fish.
(ii)Enhances nutrient cycling and productivity in the pond ecosystem.
(iii)Increases overall fish yield by supporting the entire food chain.
(iv)Helps maintain water quality by promoting biological processes that consume excess nutrients.


(i)Disease outbreaks to prevent further spread.
(ii)Overpopulation leading to resource depletion and stress.
(iii)Poor growth performance or genetic defects.
(iv)Aggressive behaviour endangering other animals or humans.
(v)Non-productivity, such as infertility or inability to produce desired products.
(vi)Economic factors like market demand or changes in production goals.


(i)Nitrogen toxicity leading to stunted growth or leaf burn.
(ii)Increased susceptibility to diseases and pests.
(iii)Imbalance in nutrient uptake, affecting overall plant health.
(iv)Reduced yield quality, such as lower protein content in grains.
(v)Environmental pollution through leaching or runoff into water bodies.
(vi)Disruption of soil microbial communities, affecting nutrient cycling and soil structure.



Agricultural insurance provides financial protection to farmers against losses incurred due to natural disasters, crop failure, or other unforeseen events

Insurance policy: Insurance policy is a legal contract between the insurer and the insured that outlines the terms and conditions of coverage, including the risks covered, the duration of coverage, and the amount of compensation in case of loss or damage.

Insurance premium: Insurance premium is the amount of money paid by the insured to the insurance company in exchange for coverage under the insurance policy.


(i)Facilitates direct interaction between farmers and experts.
(ii)Enables personalized assistance tailored to specific farming needs.
(iii)Promotes knowledge sharing and exchange of best practices among farmers.
(iv)Helps disseminate new technologies and innovations to improve agricultural practices.
(v)Builds trust and strengthens relationships between farmers and agricultural authorities.
(vi)Increases farmers’ capacity to adapt to challenges and improve productivity sustainably.


(i)Farmer field days or agricultural fairs.
(ii)Radio broadcasts or agricultural programs.
(iii)Mobile phone text messages or voice calls.
(iv)Pamphlets or printed materials distributed door-to-door.
(v)Demonstration plots or on-farm training sessions.


(i)Threshing: Separating the rice grains from the stalks or straw.
(ii)Winnowing: Removing the chaff and debris from the rice grains through air currents.
(iii)Drying: Reducing the moisture content of the rice grains
(iv)Cleaning: Removing impurities, such as stones, dirt
(v)Milling: Removing the outer layers of the rice grain.
(vi)Polishing: Buffing the rice grains to enhance appearance and marketability.



Leave a Reply

Your comment are Monitored.