Waec 2023 IRS Obj & Essay Answers

Waec 2023 IRS Obj & Essay Answers

Waec 2023 IRS Obj & Essay Answers




===========IRS THEORY SECTION================

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
(i)Qul huwal laahu ahad
(ii)Allah hus-samad
(iii)Lam yalid wa lam yoolad
(iv)Wa lam yakul-lahoo kufuwan ahad

In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
(i)Say, “He is God, the One.
(ii)God, the Absolute.
(iii)He begets not, nor was He begotten.
(iv)And there is nothing comparable to Him.”

Surah Al-Ikhlas proclaims the Oneness of Allah and this concept is presented in the first ayah. The second ayah declares that Allah is As-Samad implying that He has all the attributes of perfection. As-Samad is one of the Names of Allah. It means the one Who everybody depends on, but the one who doesn’t depend on anyone, it also indicates that Allah is unlike His creation. The third ayah describes that He was not born nor did He give birth and the last ayah declares that Allah is beyond comparison. Surah Al-Ikhlas directly supports the first pillar of Islam, the shahadah.
Surah al-Ikhlas is one of the first surahs that many Muslims remember learning as a child and this is also true for those who convert to Islam. After a person has learnt the basics of the five daily prayers they are usually anxious to recite the shorter surahs of the Quran in their prayers, and almost always surah Al-Ikhlas is one of them.
Reciting surah Al-Ikhlas may be the means of attaining Paradise and earning Allah’s love. From the ahadith we are able to find some of the many benefits of loving, reciting and living by the principles outlined in this short surah.
Prophet Muhammad sent a man as a leader of an expedition. During the journey, in every prayer he concluded his recitation of the Quran with surah Al-Ikhlas. On their return his companions mentioned this to Prophet Muhammad, who replied, “Ask him why he did so”. When the man was asked, he answered, “In this surah the attributes of the Merciful Allah have been stated; therefore, I love to recite it again and again.” When the Prophet Muhammad heard this reply, he said to the people, “Inform him that Allah holds him in great love and esteem.


NO 3
Abu Bakr’s Contributions to Islam
Caliph Abu Bakr, also known as Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, made significant contributions to Islam during his tenure as the first caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-634 CE).

Here are some of his notable contributions:

Successor to Prophet Muhammad:

Abu Bakr was chosen as the caliph after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE. He played a crucial role in maintaining the unity of the Muslim community and ensuring a smooth transition of leadership.

Preservation of the Qur’an: Abu Bakr recognized the importance of preserving the Qur’an in its written form. Under his leadership, a committee was formed to collect and compile the scattered verses of the Qur’an into a unified book. This compilation became the basis for the standard Qur’an we have today.

Consolidation of the Muslim State: Abu Bakr faced significant challenges after the death of the Prophet, including rebellions and apostasy. He successfully led military campaigns to suppress these uprisings and reestablish the authority of the Islamic state. This period is known as the Ridda Wars or Wars of Apostasy.

Expansion of Islamic Territories: Abu Bakr initiated military expeditions beyond the Arabian Peninsula to spread the message of Islam and defend the Muslim community. He authorized and supported the military campaigns led by Muslim commanders, such as Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-As. These expeditions resulted in the successful conquest of parts of Byzantine and Sassanian empires, including regions of present-day Iraq, Syria, and Palestine.

Administrative Reforms: Abu Bakr introduced administrative reforms to ensure effective governance of the expanding Muslim state. He established a system of consultation (Shura) to seek the opinions of companions in decision-making. He also appointed capable governors and administrators to oversee newly conquered territories.

Financial and Social Reforms: Abu Bakr implemented policies to address economic and social issues within the Muslim community. He established a public treasury (Bayt al-Mal) to manage the distribution of funds and allocated stipends to support the poor, widows, and orphans. He also emphasized the importance of justice and accountability in society.

Abu Bakr’s contributions were instrumental in laying the foundation for the early Islamic state and ensuring the stability and growth of the Muslim community. His leadership and adherence to the principles of Islam set important precedents for future caliphs and leaders within the Islamic world.


(i) His monumental work inspired  generations of scholars of hadith including Imam Muslim who produced authentic book of hadith called Sahih Muslim considered the second best only to Sahih Bukhari in authenticity.
(ii) His book has helped Muslims live their lives as close to the life of the Prophet (S.A.W) as possible.
(iii) He divided his book into different topics each with numerous chapters within it for easy  references e.g. “the superiority  of extra prayers at night in Ramadhan i.e Taraweh.
(iv) He organized his collection in a way that it can also be used to help deduce rulings within Islamic law.
(iv) He made the study of hadith a science with governing laws that protected the field from innovations and corruptions.
(v) Imam  Bukhari  analysed each hadith as either sahih, hasan, Mutawatir , ahad, dhaif or maudhu a system that became the standard by which all hadith were classified by other hadith scholars.
(vi) Imam Bukhari studied the lives of narrators to make sure they were trustworthy and would not fabricate or change the wording of a hadith.
(vii) His  authentic book of hadith (sahih Bukhari) is the most depended book of hadith immediately after the Holy Qur’an.
(viii) He dedicated his life in compiling a book that would strictly comprise of authentic traditions.

(5) Hadith 9 al-nawawi
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say:
What I have forbidden for you, avoid. What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. For verily, it was only their excessive questioning and disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed [the nations] who were before you.
Stay Away from What is Prohibited
“What I have forbidden for you, avoid.” We have to follow this command all the time, and in all situations. This order has to be followed except under dire circumstances, such as when one is starving and there is no food available except for some meat that was not properly slaughtered. In conditions other than that of necessity, however, all Muslims have to avoid what is forbidden.
Obligations are According to Ability
“What I have ordered you to do, do as much of it as you can” is an important principle of Islam. The Prophet (saw) is indicating that we won’t be able to do all what is required, but we have to do as much of it as we can. Based upon this principle are countless other rulings. Prayer, for example: the Prophet (saw) said, ‘Pray standing; if you are not able to; pray sitting, if you are not able to; pray (while lying) on your side.

NO. 6
Consequences of Uthman bn Fodio’s jihad on HAUSA land in 19th century

Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad, also known as the Fulani War or Sokoto Caliphate, had significant consequences for the Hausa land in the 19th century. Here are some of the main consequences:

*Political Transformation:*

The jihad led by Uthman dan Fodio resulted in the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1804, which encompassed a large portion of what is now northern Nigeria. This theocratic state brought about a significant political transformation in the region, replacing the existing Hausa kingdoms with a centralized Islamic government under the leadership of the caliph.

*Spread of Islam:

One of the primary objectives of the jihad was to purify Islamic practice and spread the teachings of Islam. The success of the jihad resulted in the spread of Islam throughout the Hausa land and beyond. Islamic law and principles were enforced, and many Hausa rulers converted to Islam or were replaced by Muslim leaders.

*Social Reorganization:

The Sokoto Caliphate implemented a new social order based on Islamic principles. The caliphate emphasized Islamic education and scholarship, establishing schools and centers of learning. This led to the rise of a new elite class of scholars and religious leaders who played significant roles in the administration of the caliphate.

*Economic Changes:

The jihad had implications for the economic structure of the Hausa land. As the caliphate consolidated its control, it imposed a new taxation system and implemented trade regulations. The caliphate sought to regulate trade routes and increase revenues, which impacted the existing economic networks and patterns of the Hausa society.

*Resistance and Conflict:

The establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate was met with resistance from various groups in the region. Some Hausa rulers who were replaced by Muslim leaders resisted the caliphate’s authority, leading to ongoing conflicts and uprisings. These conflicts continued for several decades as different groups sought to maintain or regain their independence.

*Cultural and Linguistic Impact:

The Fulani, who led the jihad, brought their language and culture to the Hausa land. The Fulfulde language and Fulani cultural practices influenced the region, resulting in a fusion of Hausa and Fulani cultural elements. The Fulani ruling class also had a significant impact on the Hausa language, leading to the adoption of certain Fulfulde vocabulary and linguistic influences.

Overall, Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad had far-reaching consequences for the Hausa land in the 19th century, transforming its political, social, religious, and economic landscape. The legacy of the Sokoto Caliphate and the changes it brought about can still be observed in present-day northern Nigeria.




Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your comment are Monitored.