Waec Civic Education Answer And Expo Questions 2022

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Waec Civic Education Answer

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Human rights simply means the absolute natural rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of any given state which are usually outlined by the constitution of the state.


Human rights means certain privileges enjoyed by every citizen in a country irrespective of gender,tribe or creed. Human rights are natural ,civil,politics and legal


Human rights are the basic natural rights which are essential for human existence and every citizen is entitled to.

(i) Being detained by law for an offence committed
(ii) During wars, a person’s right can be violated
(iii) During a curfew
(iv) When a citizen has a contagious or an infectious disease.
(v) Declaration of a state of emergency
(vi) Acquisition of individual’s property by the state for public use

(i) To guarantee the liberty of citizens: It guarantees a total safeguard of human right, peace and unity in the society as the constitution is a body of laws and principles through which a state is ruled

(ii) To make sure the rights of citizens are not violated: Laws that are not written in the constitution are unknown to law, they cannot be exercised or sanctioned when violated.

(iii) To punish violators: The written form of human right gives room for a provision of a section for punishment of an offender or someone who infringed on someone’s right.

– They encourage dialogues with the kids.
– They act as responsible individuals themselves
– They spend quality time with their children
– They encourage more and criticize
– They teach more with actions (and examples) and less with words

– Responsible citizenry
– Healthy Nation
– Reduction in crime
– Emotionally balanced population
-Provision of formal education for the children.


(i) The first important quality of a responsible parent is choosing the right partner, to prevent future disputes.
(ii) Responsible parenthood requires parents to consider their financial ability and plan on the number of children to give birth to, and cater for.
(iii) A responsible parent should be able to provide the needs of the family
(iv) A responsible parent should be able to detect when his or her partner and children are emotionally unstable and adjust to prevent uprising in the family.
(v) A responsible parent should be able to adopt peaceful strategies like mimicking, laughter, etc

(i) Responsible citizenry: Parents care for their child’s wellbeing, health, safety and character development especially at their early years. These will help the child into development and law-abiding adult citizens thereby making the children contribute to the development of the society.
(ii) Reduction in crime: A responsible parents put in their children good and acceptable societal values of love, honesty, diligence, contentment and integrity. And these influence the pattern of development and behaviour of their children especially at adulthood. Thereby reducing the rate of crime in the society.
(iii) Healthy Nation: Children who are given adequate and sound education, right type of food, a decent shelter, security and unbeatable recreational facilities will spend less in medicine. Thereby maintaining healthy nation.
(iv) Emotionally balanced population: Hence parents put in their child/children the good and balanced emotional control. The child turnout to seek peaceful and legal means of redress in the society. Thereby improving the society into development of emotional balanced population.
(v) Budgeting and finances: In order to keep the economy of a given society going, the citizens need to have good control of their finances. Parents can help to get their children into good financial habits early on.
(vi) Encouraging independent thought: In a democratic society, or indeed in any society, good citizenship involves expressing one’s opinions, and also respecting the opinions of others. This is seen not least in the voting process. Responsible parenthood, then, also involves teaching children to respect others’ opinions – and to develop their own opinions too. Tolerance of others is a true civic virtue.



– Breakdown of law and order.
– Violence and social instability.
– Disruption of academic activities.
– Disorientation of societal values.
– Premature death of youths who are cult members/innocent victims.

– Parents should pay more attention to their children’s upbringing and educate
them properly on acceptable standards of behaviour.
– Students should be encouraged to join religious groups and develop the fear of God because the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.
– Students should be encouraged to work hard in school.
– Parents should show good examples to their children.
– The teaching and learning environment should be conducive.

5a. 1 Fear of contacting hiv from them.
2. The judgemental part of thinking people who have hiv contacted it through immoralities.
3. Lack of enlightenment on how hiv works.
4. Outdated beliefs of some people concerning the disease.
5. The dreaded nature and assumptions of the disease

5b. 1. Inability of the patients to work owing to the illness can lead to dearth of human resources.
2. The dependents on the patients will suffer poverty and loss of goals.
3. The production life of the society will dwindle.
4. Good number of investable capital will be wasted of taking care of the sickness.
5. More people will be in danger of being exposed to the sickness owing to it’s spread which will underpopulate such society

(i) Life coping skills: These refer to strategies used to help you get through difficult situations that life throws at you
(ii) Intellectual skills: These refer to the ways of thinking and problem-solving used by professionals in a field
(iii) Decision making skills: This is the ability to select between two or more alternatives to reach the best outcome in the shortest time.
(iv) Leadership skills: These are the strengths and abilities individuals demonstrate that help the oversee processes, guide initiatives and steer their employees toward the achievement of goals
(v) Negotiation skills: These are qualities that allow two or more sides to reach a compromise. These are often soft skills such as persuasion, planning, strategizing and cooperating
(vi) Motivational/self-actualization skills: These refers to the actions you take to elicit a desired outcome, response or behavior.
(vii) Communicative skills: This is the ability to convey or share ideas and feelings effectively.
(viii) Artistic skills: This is a particular skill or a flair for something, especially an artistic pursuit.
(ix) Interpersonal/human relation skills: These are the behaviors and tactics a person uses to interact with others effectively

(i) To inculcate discipline in Nigerian youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry at work, and of patriotic and loyal service to Nigeria in any situation they may find themselves.

(ii) To raise the moral tone of the Nigerian youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of national achievement, social and cultural improvement

(iii) To develop in the Nigerian youths the attitudes of mind, acquired through shared experience and suitable training which will make them more amenable to mobilisation in the national interest

(iv) To enable Nigerian youths acquire the spirit of self reliance by encouraging them to develop skills for self employment

(vi) To contribute to the accelerated growth of the national economy by engaging them in different productive areas of national economy such as in farms, and in private enterprises.

(v) To develop common ties among the Nigerian youths and promote national unity and integration

(vi) To provide greater employment opportunities for the youths by ensuring greater job opportunities are available to the fresh graduates


6a.1. Provisions of higher education
2. Provisions of technical and vocational education
3. Provisions of special scholarship program
4. Increase budgetary allocation for education
5. Making grant available for business development
6. Engaging youth in construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure.

1. To promote national unity
2. To inculcate the discipline and spirit of patriotism in the youth for national development
3. To contribute to the accelerated growth of the national economy
4. To live and work in any part of Nigeria
5. To make skills available to areas of need in any part of Nigeria


7a. Political party is defined as organised group of citizens, who act together as a political unit having distinctive aims and objectives involving political questions in the state and acting together and seeking to obtain control of government.

1. Secret balloting
2. Counting of votes
3. Division into constituencies
4. Preparation of voters register
5. Initidation of voters
6. Opportunity to campaigns

Pro-democracy demonstration definition: A demonstration is a march or gathering which people take part in to show their.

labor group is an organization that engages in collective bargaining with an employer to protect workers’ .

Professional group is an association that is formed to further the interests of people engaged in a specific profession

Religious groups bring people together for regular ritual interactions, and these interactions take place in defined settings controlled by religious movements

Student Group means a number of persons who are associated with a school and each other, but who have not registered

(i)Negative or poor attitude to work: Civil servants are known to display poor attitude to work due to inadequate salaries, poor working conditions and absence of job security.

(ii) Bureaucracy: Civil servants follow precedents and adhere strictly to official rules when carrying out decisions and policies of government.

(iii)Political instability:
Continuous change of government brings along a change of political appointees like ministers, commissioners and career top civil servants such as the head of service and sometimes the directors-general.

(iv)Political interference: The intervention of the government in the day-to-day administration of the civil service does not give the civil servants the necessary freedom to carry out government policies effectively.

(v)Duplication of offices and position: The civil service is often criticized for wasting financial and manpower resources, and retaining unproductive workers with the creation of ministries, departments and positions with similar functions.

(NUMBER 9) (Pick Any Five)
(I)Poor orientations and low salaries Public servants get poor or no orientations about their jobs and various offices held. This is coupled with their low salary earnings as pea-nut which is another reason for the shortcomings in the public service.

(ii)Lack of qualified personnel: Most personnel in various public service offices either neglect their right jobs or have little or no experience about it but carry out such services due to their search for greener pasture.

(iii)Waste of manpower and resources: This is another form of over-staffing which leads duplication of offices in the ministries. It appears as a waste of man power and resources when the public service pays excess money for little efforts since there would be no much job for them to carry out in their various offices.

(iv)Corruption: The effectiveness of the public service has been slowed down by bribery and corruption to the extent that public servants failed to perform their official duties as they look forward to bribery before carrying out their jobs.

(v)Colonial influence: Most public corporations incorporated in Nigeria during the colonial era and no longer inform since the departure of colonial masters who were the initiators of this public services and corporation. The independence saga and influence brought about some shortcomings into the public service, as some of these public corporations were seized and manipulated by private individuals into their own private businesses.

(vi)Political instability : constant and regular change of top rank office holders in public service brings about constant instability of rules and regulations. This constantly leads to the shortcomings in the public service sector in Nigeria

(vii)Political interference: Many governments in power do not allow the free flow of duties dye to the undue interferences which at most times is only favourable to politician. They regularly fixed upon various tasks they are ignorant of , but only their political wings attached them to such jobs.

(vii)Inconsistency of government policies/Bureaucracy: In Nigeria, a change of government many times means changes in policies.Bureaucracy refers to excessive use of formalities in the public service, which militate against its effectiveness.

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