Waec 2024 Literature In English (Drama & Poetry) Questions

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Waec 2024 Literature In English (Drama & Poetry) Questions

Date: Friday, 24th May, 2024
Literature-In-English  (Drama & Poetry) 3:30 pm. – 6:00 pm



A Government Driver on His Retirement is a moving account of the life and terrible demise of a government driver who, upon retiring from thirty-five years of devoted service, recklessly celebrates his newfound freedom. The plot offers a critical examination of human conceit and the risks associated with leading a negligent life.
The government driver is finally relieved of his responsibilities after years of abiding by stringent regulations, including the ban on driving after intoxication. His retirement, which ends his years of devoted work without a record of accidents, is a cause for tremendous jubilation. The driver, according to the poet, has sworn devotion to sobriety while performing his job, demonstrating his dedication to both his nation and his position. With his coming liberation, the driver will no longer be subject to the strict rules that had previously restricted his life, enabling him to enjoy previously outlawed activities like drinking.
The driver chooses to indulge in binge drinking to commemorate his newfound freedom after retiring. He asks others to participate in his celebration, making it both a social gathering and a personal indulgence. The driver’s intention to drink and drive home carelessly highlights a significant departure from his prior observance of the law and reveals a deep-seated desire to make up for years of self-control. His admission that he will drink to ignore his pains serves as a stark reminder of the physical and psychological toll that his years of duty have taken.
The government gives the driver a brand-new automobile as a token of gratitude and acknowledgment for his impeccable service over the course of three and a half decades. This is a physical memento of his achievements, given to him in appreciation for his hard work and devotion. When the driver gets behind the wheel of his new automobile while intoxicated, the absurdity of this gift becomes all too evident. The automobile, which was supposed to be a present for his service, ends up becoming the means of his death.
A deadly collision occurs as a result of the driver’s impaired judgment and coordination brought on by their excessive alcohol consumption. The poet tells how the driver wrecks the automobile that was supposed to be a celebration of his retirement due to poor vision and judgment. This terrible outcome offers a potent remark on the perils of careless actions and the transient nature of human existence. The driver’s life, which had previously been marked by meticulous observance of laws and regulations, comes to an abrupt end with reckless abandonment.
Concerns over the driver’s legacy and the suitability of his prize are brought up by his passing. On the one hand, it is right that we celebrate and honor his thirty-five years of devoted service. The government’s appreciation and thanks for his continuous devotion are symbolized by the new automobile. However, the driver’s tragic death results from his incapacity to manage his newfound freedom appropriately, implying that although his award was well-deserved, it also played a role in his demise.



Troy Maxson’s background has a significant impact on his current situation, affecting his behavior, relationships, and outlook. Deep wounds from his early life experiences and battles with racial prejudice may be seen in Troy’s relationships with his family and outlook on life.
Troy’s current perspective is largely shaped by his past as a gifted baseball player who was never able to make it to the major leagues. Racial prejudice kept Troy out of the major leagues despite his skill; this happened just around the time these leagues started to include black players. His bitterness and resentment stem from this exclusion have affected how he views Cory’s chances. Troy fiercely opposes Cory being recruited by a college football team because he believes Cory will experience the same racial obstacles and setbacks that he did. Troy sabotages Cory’s football dreams out of dread and a protective impulse, thinking he is saving his son from the pain that would inevitably come.
Troy’s harsh and controlling behavior toward his family is an additional effect of his prior hardships. Troy has adopted a strict, authoritarian parenting style as a result of his terrible childhood and the struggles he had as a black guy growing up in a culture that separated people based on race. He puts his own anxieties and unfulfilled goals on his kids, especially Cory, who he tells to give up football and concentrate on finding a real job. Because of his personal experiences with struggle and deprivation, Troy finds it difficult to provide love and support for others. As a result, he equates supplying material possessions with carrying out his parental obligations.
Troy’s connection with his wife, Rose, further reveals the depth of his character. Despite his sincere feelings for Alberta, Troy’s extramarital affair with her is a result of his prior disappointments and setbacks. He uses the affair as a temporary sense of power and liberation from the stresses and setbacks in his life. But when Alberta passes away while giving birth, Troy has to face the repercussions of his actions. The fact that Rose chose to raise Raynell, Alberta’s child, while emotionally separating herself from Troy, highlights the damaging effects of his incapacity to make sense of his past and present.
The bond that Troy has with Lyons, his oldest son, emphasizes the lasting impact of his background. Troy frequently treats Lyons, a promising musician, with contempt and distrust. Troy is skeptical of creative endeavors since he believes they are unreliable and unrealistic as a result of his experiences. He reluctantly provides Lyons with financial assistance, but he does it with a disappointed and superior feeling since he cannot recognize his son’s love of music. This interplay captures Troy’s inner battle between his need to provide for his family and his ingrained conviction that hopes are unachievable in a society tainted by racial and economic inequities.
Furthermore, Troy’s conversations with his friend Bono illuminate the persisting ties and common past that have shaped his current circumstances. Troy’s strength and honesty are admirable to Bono; these attributes were developed throughout years of hardship. Their nearly thirty-year friendship is proof of the fortitude and camaraderie needed to face the challenging circumstances in their life. The perseverance of Troy’s struggle against systematic oppression is highlighted by Bono’s appreciation for Troy’s will to confront racial injustices at work, as seen by Troy’s inquiry into the reason why black employees are not permitted to operate trash trucks.




The poet explores the dynamics of leadership and followership through the symbolic representation of animals in the animal kingdom. This metaphorical approach highlights the leadership challenges prevalent in African politics, particularly in Nigeria. The animals’ quest to find a suitable leader serves as a critique of the qualities often found in human leaders and the reasons such qualities are rejected.
The poem opens with the lion staking his claim to leadership, reflecting how certain politicians assert their authority through dominance and fear. The lion’s ferocious nature and aggressive tactics make him an unsuitable leader, as the other animals are too frightened to challenge his rule. This mirrors the political landscape in Nigeria, where leaders often use intimidation and violence to maintain power, causing the masses to feel powerless and afraid to demand change.
The hyena is another animal whose leadership qualities are rejected due to his “lethal appetite.” This symbolizes politicians who are motivated by personal gain and corruption, feeding off the resources meant for the public. The impalas, representing the people, shudder at the thought of being led by someone whose intentions are purely self-serving. This rejection highlights the need for leaders who prioritize the welfare of the masses over their own desires.
The elephant, despite being the largest and potentially most powerful animal, is also deemed unfit to lead. The other animals dread his “trampling feet,” suggesting that his leadership style would be oppressive and dictatorial. This critique points to the rejection of leaders who use their power to dominate and control, rather than to serve and uplift their followers. It emphasizes that sheer size or power should not be the sole criteria for leadership; rather, it should be the ability to govern with fairness and respect.
The giraffe, with his lofty perspective, is rejected because “his eyes are too far from the ground.” This symbolizes leaders who are out of touch with the realities and needs of the people they are supposed to serve. Such leaders fail to see and address the everyday struggles of the masses, making them ineffective and disconnected. This rejection underscores the importance of leaders who are empathetic and responsive to the concerns of their constituents.
The zebra is dismissed due to the “duplicity of his stripes,” symbolizing leaders who are untrustworthy and inconsistent. The zebra’s inability to inspire confidence and trust among the animals highlights the rejection of leaders who are perceived as deceitful and unreliable. Trustworthiness and integrity are essential qualities in leadership, as they ensure that leaders act in the best interest of those they lead.
The warthog and the rhino are also rejected based on their inherent traits. The warthog is seen as “too ugly,” and the rhino is deemed “too riotous,” reflecting the rejection of leaders who are either too unattractive in their conduct or too chaotic in their approach to governance. This critique emphasizes the need for leaders who present themselves with dignity and maintain order and stability.




Friday is a pivotal day that highlights a number of important facets of the lives and relationships of the characters, signifying both everyday events and big moments. The play’s repeated mention of Friday highlights how cyclical their conflicts, goals, and problems are. Wilson creates a complicated narrative that emphasizes the significance of Fridays in forming the experiences of the characters and the overarching plot through a variety of Friday-related occurrences.
On a Friday in 1957, when the play starts, Troy and Bono—two close friends and garbage collectors—are getting paid. This day represents a little reprieve from their arduous work, enabling them to partake in their custom of drinking and conversing. Troy and Bono’s relationship is strengthened by the payday ritual, which also provides insight into their common challenges as working-class African American males. Troy confronts their manager, Mr. Rand, about racial prejudice at work, and their interaction demonstrates Troy’s bravery and tenacity. Friday is a day for introspection and resistance since Troy’s fight against systematic racism is reflected in his desire for equitable work chances.
Troy and his family’s conflict is exacerbated by Friday as well. Today, Cory, Troy’s son, talks about wanting to play college football, something Troy strongly disagrees with. Troy’s own encounters with racial prejudice in athletics are the reason behind his inability to endorse Cory’s goals. His doubts about Cory’s football career highlight the generational divide and divergent views on success and opportunity. When Troy tells Cory’s coach that he can no longer play, thereby dashing his son’s ambitions, the tension is increased even further. In this sense, Friday is significant because it represents a day when familial and personal tensions escalate, compelling people to face their wants and anxieties.
The Friday events also bring Troy’s nuanced connections with other characters to light. For example, the tense connection between father and son is shown when Lyons, Troy’s oldest son from a previous marriage, comes to borrow money. The fact that Lyons asks Troy for money on payday not only shows how dependent he is on him, but it also highlights Troy’s mixed feelings as a parent who both supports and resents his son’s desire to pursue music. Furthermore, Troy’s relationship with his wife Rose is made more difficult by Bono’s charge of his adultery, which was prompted by Troy purchasing a drink for a different lady. These Friday conversations reveal the underlying tensions that underlie their lives and the brittleness of familial connections.
The play goes on to show how important Fridays are. Troy celebrates becoming the first black garbage truck driver in the city in Act One, Scene Four, which also takes place on a Friday. Even though this accomplishment is noteworthy, there is still continuous family strife, so it is bittersweet. When Cory confronts Troy, it foreshadows deeper issues as his resentment for ruining his football ambitions reappears. This day highlights the dichotomy of accomplishment and agony as Troy considers his background, his hardships, and his duties as a husband and parent.
Troy’s life begins to fall apart in the second act, with major incidents that likewise center around Fridays. Troy’s relationships become more difficult as a result of his romance with Alberta and her eventual pregnancy. Troy is forced to deal with the fallout from his actions when Alberta passes away during delivery. A turning point in Rose and Troy’s marriage was her decision to raise Raynell while emotionally separating herself from him. The fact that these occurrences culminate on Fridays highlights the significance of the day as a representation of both disruption and regularity, which reflects Troy’s life’s ups and downs.



Cliff’s treatment of Alison stands in stark contrast to that of Jimmy. As a gentle and empathetic individual, Cliff represents a more compassionate and understanding presence in Alison’s life, providing her with emotional support and protection against Jimmy’s abrasive behavior.
Firstly, Cliff’s gentle demeanor and genuine fondness for Alison highlight his role as a comforting figure. Unlike Jimmy, who often exhibits fire, wit, and a bullying attitude, Cliff lacks any form of cruelty or verbal abuse. He appreciates Alison’s efforts in housekeeping and openly expresses his gratitude, creating a stark contrast to Jimmy’s harshness. This appreciation is evident in the way Cliff personally bandages Alison’s arm after she gets burnt, showcasing his caring nature and attentiveness to her well-being.
Cliff’s empathy and sensitivity further distinguish his character. He does not merely share in the problems of others but also seems to have an innate understanding of their feelings. Acting as a mediator between Jimmy and Alison, Cliff sacrifices his time and energy to try and maintain harmony in their tumultuous relationship. When Helena expresses her disdain for Jimmy, Cliff perceptively suggests that she might actually harbor deeper feelings for him. He is also the only person who senses Alison’s growing inclination to end her marriage, highlighting his intuitive understanding of her emotional state.
Moreover, Cliff’s relaxed and easy-going nature, combined with his self-taught intelligence, makes him a stabilizing force in the play. His affectionate relationship with Alison, while it has elements of sexual tension, remains rooted in a comfortable fondness rather than passionate desire. This platonic yet intimate bond provides Alison with a safe space amidst the chaos of her marriage. However, recognizing the need to pursue his own life, Cliff eventually decides to leave Jimmy’s apartment, demonstrating his desire for personal growth and independence.
Cliff’s good nature and supportive role make him a confidant for Alison. He is ever willing to offer his assistance and counsel, encouraging her to reconsider her decision to leave Jimmy. When Alison expresses her disillusionment with love, Cliff gently admonishes her, urging her not to give up on her relationship. His steadfast support underscores his commitment to Alison’s happiness and his belief in the possibility of reconciliation.




The play reverberates with the caustic echoes of sarcasm, serving as a multifaceted tool to dissect characters’ inner turmoil, interpersonal dynamics, and societal critiques. Through Osborne’s adept utilization of sarcasm, the play emerges as a poignant exploration of post-war disillusionment, class struggle, and the complexities of human relationships.
At the heart of the play lies the protagonist, Jimmy Porter, whose razor-sharp wit and biting sarcasm serve as both armor and weapon in his relentless battle against the perceived injustices of society. Jimmy’s sarcastic barbs are directed indiscriminately, targeting his closest confidants, Cliff and Alison, as well as broader societal constructs. His scathing remarks towards Cliff, a working-class friend, and Alison, his own wife, reveal a deep-seated frustration with their perceived inadequacies and the constraints of their respective social positions. Through sarcasm, Jimmy articulates his disillusionment with the status quo, using humor as a shield to mask his underlying pain and insecurity.
In turn, Alison and Cliff employ sarcasm as a means of self-defense and assertion of agency within their tumultuous relationships with Jimmy. Alison, initially portrayed as meek and submissive, gradually adopts sarcasm as a tool to challenge Jimmy’s dominance and assert her own autonomy. Her sarcastic retorts serve as a subtle rebellion against Jimmy’s oppressive behavior, signaling her growing disillusionment with their marriage and societal expectations.
Moreover, sarcasm emerges as a form of conflict resolution within the play, allowing characters to navigate their complex relationships while avoiding direct confrontation. Instead of engaging in open dialogue, characters resort to sarcastic exchanges as a means of expressing grievances and asserting their positions. This indirect approach to conflict resolution underscores the characters’ underlying insecurities and the fragility of their interpersonal connections.
Beyond the realm of individual relationships, sarcasm serves as a potent vehicle for social commentary, offering scathing critiques of post-war England’s societal norms and class distinctions. Through sarcastic dialogue, Osborne exposes the hypocrisy and absurdity inherent in the rigid social hierarchy, interrogating the disparity between societal ideals and lived realities. Sarcasm becomes a means of articulating the characters’ frustration with the ossified structures of class and privilege, fueling their desire for change and upheaval.
Ultimately, sarcasm functions as a coping mechanism for the characters, enabling them to navigate the complexities of their lives amidst turmoil and uncertainty. Through sarcastic banter, characters carve out moments of agency and empowerment, reclaiming a semblance of control in a world fraught with disillusionment and despair.



In Wole Soyinka’s “The Lion and the Jewel,” Lakunle’s attitude towards Baroka is complex and multifaceted, reflecting his deep-seated animosity and ideological differences with the older man. Lakunle’s disdain for Baroka, the Bale of Ilujinle, is fueled by several factors, each contributing to his passionate hatred and rivalry.

Firstly, Baroka’s interest in Sidi, which is sparked by her sudden fame, intensifies Lakunle’s loathing. When Sadiku, Baroka’s eldest wife, is sent to convey the Bale’s message of love to Sidi, she is met with rejection by the conceited girl. Baroka’s pursuit of Sidi becomes a significant point of contention for Lakunle, who already harbors deep resentment towards the Bale. Lakunle perceives Baroka’s intentions as yet another manifestation of his oppressive and archaic ways, further fueling his hatred.
Additionally, Lakunle blames Baroka for hindering progress in Ilujinle. He accuses the Bale of deliberately blocking the railway that would have passed through the village, believing that Baroka fears the changes and attractions that such development would bring. This act, in Lakunle’s view, epitomizes Baroka’s resistance to modernization and progress, which Lakunle fervently advocates. For Lakunle, Baroka symbolizes the stagnation and backwardness that he despises, intensifying his animosity towards the old man.
Despite Lakunle’s intense displeasure, Baroka remains undeterred in his pursuit of Sidi. In fact, Lakunle’s hatred seems to spur Baroka’s desire even further, possibly as a means to antagonize his rival. Baroka’s determination to win Sidi’s affection leads him to employ cunning tactics. He concocts a ruse of sudden impotence, using Sadiku to spread the false news to Sidi. This deception is part of Baroka’s strategy to manipulate Sidi into letting her guard down, thus enabling him to seduce her.
Sadiku plays a crucial role in Baroka’s scheme. She unwittingly becomes the bearer of the Bale’s deceit, naively believing the fabricated story of Baroka’s impotence. In her mischievous excitement, Sadiku taunts Baroka, thinking she has bested the powerful Bale. However, this belief in a lie ultimately leads Sidi into Baroka’s embrace, resulting in her marriage to him and the rejection of Lakunle.
Lakunle’s reaction to Sidi’s marriage to Baroka encapsulates his ultimate defeat and the futility of his efforts. Despite his vehement opposition to Baroka and his attempts to thwart the Bale’s plans, Lakunle is unable to prevent Sidi from succumbing to Baroka’s charm and cunning. This outcome not only solidifies Baroka’s dominance but also highlights the stark contrast between Lakunle’s idealistic but ineffective approach and Baroka’s pragmatic and manipulative strategies.


WOLE, SOYINKA: The Lion and the Jewel Here are three instances of irony in Wole Soyinka’s play “The Lion and the Jewel” And The Key Points Needed.

(i)Baroka’s Impotence: One ironic element in the play is Baroka’s portrayal as a powerful and virile character, despite his supposed impotence. Throughout the play, Baroka is known for his reputation as a seducer of young women. However, it is revealed that his impotence is a ruse to trick Sidi into believing she can control him. This ironic twist challenges the audience’s initial perception of Baroka’s power and reveals the complexities of his character.

(i)Sidi’s Transformation: Another instance of irony involves Sidi’s transformation from a village beauty into Baroka’s wife. Initially, Sidi is depicted as a strong-willed and independent woman who resists the advances of the men in the village. However, she ultimately succumbs to Baroka’s charm and becomes his wife, which is ironic considering her desire for freedom and modernity.

(iii)The Photographer’s Exploitation: The arrival of the photographer from the city introduces another layer of irony. The photographer claims to be interested in capturing the essence of African beauty and culture, but he ends up exploiting Sidi for his own gain. He objectifies her and uses her image for commercial purposes, contradicting his initial pretense of appreciating and respecting African traditions.

These instances of irony in “The Lion and the Jewel” serve to challenge the audience’s expectations and highlight the complexities of the characters and the themes explored in the play, such as power dynamics, gender roles, and the clash between tradition and modernity.




In the African drama “Let Me Die Alone,” the deaths of Yoko and Gbanya are pivotal moments that encapsulate the themes of power, betrayal, and sacrifice. These events are deeply intertwined with their personal struggles and the political tensions of their time.
Yoko, a historical figure and the drama’s tragic heroine, becomes overwhelmed by the pressures and turmoil in Moyamba. Feeling humiliated and unfit to rule, she decides that the only way to achieve peace is through death. This sense of overwhelming despair drives her to poison herself. In her final speech, Yoko articulates her longing for peace, saying, “If I’m to die, then let me die alone… and now I will know peace. Now I will never be used again. Gbanya, make way, Yoko is coming in search of peace.” Her words reveal her profound disillusionment and her desire to escape the burdens of leadership.
Gbanya, the chief of Senehun and Yoko’s husband, plays a crucial role in the unfolding tragedy through his broken promises and political missteps. Although he initially promises to pass the chiefdom to Yoko, he later retracts, citing the threats from external enemies and the turbulent political environment. This betrayal deepens Yoko’s sense of despair. Gbanya’s failure to keep his promise is evident when he reflects on the changing circumstances: “Remember you made a promise a long time ago that at the time of your death the chiefdom passes into my hands.” His vacillation and eventual poisoning by Lamboi and Musa, who conspire to prevent Yoko from gaining power, precipitate Yoko’s final, tragic decision.
Yoko’s empathetic nature and deep sensitivity to her people’s plight make her a compassionate leader, but these qualities also render her vulnerable to the immense stress and emotional toll of leadership. The constant pressures become unbearable, leading her to conclude that taking her own life is the only way to find peace. Her ultimate act of self-poisoning is a testament to her desire to bear the burdens alone. In her final moments, she declares, “I have savored the fruits of power alone… let me die alone… and now I will know peace,” underscoring her isolation and the weight of her sacrifices.
The political intrigue and external pressures further complicate their lives. Gbanya’s rule is undermined by the British colonial influence, particularly Governor Samuel Rowe, who humiliates him in front of his people. This public degradation symbolizes the erosion of traditional authority and foreshadows the instability that leads to both their deaths. Lamboi and Musa’s conspiracy to poison Gbanya to prevent Yoko from assuming power adds to the tragic unraveling of their lives.
Yoko’s final act of poisoning herself is the culmination of her profound sense of betrayal, loss, and yearning for peace. Her last words, “I… did not bring a child into this world. So let no one mourn my death. Tell the entire Chiefdom, none should mourn my death,” reflect her resignation and desire to be forgotten, highlighting her loneliness and the depth of her sacrifices. This self-imposed isolation in death underscores the tragic dimensions of her character and her quest for peace.



In the poem “Bat,” the poet D.H. Lawrence presents a negative attitude towards bats. He describes them as “queer little house-creatures” that are “like brown paper parcels.” The poet also mentions that bats “hide in corners” and “dart out with an air of galantry.”
-These descriptions suggest that the poet sees bats as strange and sneaky creatures that are not to be trusted.
-Furthermore, the poet compares bats to “old women” who “must be secretly in league with the devil.”
-This comparison reinforces the negative attitude towards bats, as it implies that they are associated with evil or dark forces.

In other words on one hand, the poet expresses:
-Revulsion: Comparing bats to “disgusting old rags” and “bits of umbrella” conveys a sense of disgust and discomfort.
-Fear: The poet describes bats as “wildly vindictive” and “grinning in their sleep,” emphasizing their unsettling nature.

On the other hand, the poet also displays:
-Fascination: The poet is drawn to the bats’ ” queer little bodies” and “leathern wings,” suggesting a morbid curiosity.
-Empathy: The poet acknowledges the bats’ “blind, helpless faces” and “tiny, terrified eyes,” revealing a sense of understanding and compassion.

Overall, the poet’s attitude towards bats is one of ambivalence, oscillating between repulsion and fascination, highlighting the complexities of human emotions and perceptions.

In “The Journey of the Magi,” the poet T.S. Eliot portrays the suffering of the travellers as a necessary part of their spiritual journey. The poem describes the harsh winter conditions that the Magi face as they travel to Bethlehem, including “the worst time of year for a journey, and such a long journey.”
-The poet also mentions the “camels galled, sore-footed, refractory” and the “cities hostile and the towns unfriendly” that the Magi encounter on their journey.
-These descriptions suggest that the Magi are facing numerous obstacles and challenges that make their journey difficult and painful.
-However, the suffering of the Magi is not portrayed as a punishment or a curse, but rather as a transformative experience.
-The poem suggests that the Magi’s suffering is necessary for them to reach their spiritual destination and experience the birth of Christ.
-The poet writes, “We returned to our places, these Kingdoms, / But no longer at ease here, in the old dispensation.” This suggests that the Magi’s journey has changed them, and they can no longer go back to their old way of life. Overall, the poem portrays the suffering of the Magi as a necessary part of their spiritual journey and a transformative experience that leads to a deeper understanding of the divine.



  1. If i purchase the online pin how many hours will it take before i see the answers,admins please answer

    • Go! and read your books, then ask God for understanding, and forget about “chokes” New generations!.

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