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[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) Freedom of the press: The radio, newspaper and television should be free to write and Express issues without any hindrance.
(ii) Political parties: Where democracy is operational, there are more than one political party with different individuals competing for power.
(iii) Political liberty: it is an indispensable factor, the equal rights of all normal adults to vote and to stand as candidates for election, periodic elections and equal eligibility for political offices etc.
(iv) Value of individual personality: In democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man,to listen to his arguments and to take account his point of view
(v) Free association and group: People should be able yo choose their own candidates or support political parties without being intimidated. Citizens can form parties and canvass for support for their programmes.
(vi) Provision of opportunities: Democracy provides opportunities for an individual to develop his or her personality. It provides access to knowledge and free education, securing against unemployment, fair working conditions, leisure etc.
(vii) Supremacy of the constitution/Rule of law: The constitution should be supreme and above every other consideration in any political system. There should be the application of the rule of law and no one should be above the law
(viii) Independence of the judiciary/fundamental human right: The judiciary should be free and independent of other branches of government eg executive and the legislature. The rights of individual should be promoted and guaranteed.
1- Existence of the Constitution
– Popular participation in politics
– Equality before the law
– Periodic election
– Separation of power
1. Existence of the Constitution: In every democratic nation, there is usually the existence of a constitution which is either written or written. A constitution can simply be defined as the fundamental laws or rules which guides a state or society.
2. Popular participation in politics: One the most important features of democracy is popular participation in politics. From the definition of democracy explained above, it is clear that any system which does not encourages people to participate in the political decision making of the government is not democratic.
3. Equality before the law: In a true democratic state, there is equity before the law. This form of government does no encourage the idea that some class of citizens should or should not be punished for their actions. Even the legitimate leaders in a democratic state are forced to face the law during or after their service of the nation.
4. Periodic election: Since the people are the supreme in a democratic state, there is usually a fixed tenure for conducting elections. This is to make sure that the political powers of the state is not concentrated in a single hand.
5. Separation of power: Separation of power is a political concept by Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, an 18th century French social and political philosopher. It means that the political powers of a state should not be concentrated in one single hand. It should rather be separated and sheared to avoid dictatorship.
2) i. Top management:
Top management is an important part of an organization. The job of top management to take important decision related to the organization and also to listen to the complaints of the employees of the organization and provide a solution to them.
ii. Authority to make a decision is in the hand of top management only:
There are different levels of management in an organization to run the organization smoothly, but still, the power to make all important decisions about the organization lies in the hands of the top management and rest, or level of management is supposed to follow the decision taken by the top management.
iii. Information flows from the upper level to lower levels:
the organizations where the centralization process is followed, the information flows from the upper level of management to lower level of management.
The top management is responsible for taking an important decision, and the decision taken by the top management is implemented in the entire organization.
There are flaws in this process as lower management can’t challenge the decision of top management even if they don’t like the decision.
iv. Longer time to make decisions:
The employees of an organization are completely dependent on the decision made by the top management. Sometimes, even if the lower management has effective solutions, they can’t implement them without getting approval from the upper management.
This protocol makes the process quite slow and ineffective.
v. Centralization is suitable for a small organization:
As centralization results in slow decision making. It is not suitable for large organizations and makes the decision process complicated.
vi. Inflexible in nature:
In the centralization process, as top management is responsible for taking all the decisions, sometimes they end up making an ineffective decision because they are unaware of the ground reality of the organization.
In such scenarios, lower management has a better capability in taking a decision. Therefore, a decentralized system of management helps in taking effective decisions.
(3) i. To Give Justice to the people
ii. Interpretation and Application of Laws:
iii. Role in Law-making:
iv. Equity (fairess) Legislation (law enactment):
v. Protection of Rights:
i. To Give Justice to the people:
The first and foremost function of the judiciary is to give justice to the people, whenever they
may approach it. It awards punishment to those who after trial are found guilty of violating the
laws of the state or the rights of the people
The aggrieved (huirt or pained) citizens can go to the courts for seeking redress (rectify &
correct) and compensation. They can do so either when they fear any harm to their rights or after
they have suffered any loss. The judiciary fixes the quantity and quality of punishment to be
given to the criminals. It decidos ull cases involving grant of compensations to the citizens.
ii. Interpretation and Application of Laws:
One of the major functions of the judiciary is to interpret (explain or clarify)and apply laws to
specific cases. In the course of deciding the disputes that come before it, the judges interpret and
upply laws. Every law needs a proper interpretation for getting applied to every specific case.
This function is performed by the judges. The law means what the judges interpret it to mean
iii. Role in Law-making:
The judiciary also plays a role in law-making. The decisions given by the courts really determina
the meaning, nature and scope of the laws passed by the legislature. The interpretation of laws by
the judiciary amounts to law-making as it is these interpretations which roully define the laws.
Moreover, the judgments delivered by the higher courts, which are the Courts of Records, are
binding upon lower courts. The lattre can decide the cases before them on the basis of the
decisions made by the higher courts. Judicial decisions constitute a source of luw.
iv. Equity (fairess) Legislation (law enactment):
Where a law is silent or ambiguous, or appears to be inconsistent with some other law of the
land, the judges depend upon their sense of justice, fairness, impartiality, honesty and wisdom
for deciding the cases. Such decisions always involve law-making. It is usually termed as equity
v. Protection of Rights:
The judiciary has the supreme responsibility to safeguard the rights of the people. A citizen has
the right to seek the protection of the judiciary in case his rights are violated or threatened to be
violated by the government or by private organizations or fellow citizens. In all such cases, it
becomes the responsibility of the judiciary to protect his rights of the people.
(4)[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) Press freedom:
(ii) Bureau of information
(iii) Freedom of speech and association
(iv) Activities of pressure groups
(v) Opinion Poll
(vi) Existence of political parties
(vii) Responsible and responsive
(i) Press freedom: The use of mass media should be maintained.
(ii) Bureau of information: This should be established to receive, compile and disseminate information.
(iii) Freedom of speech and association: By encouraging and allowing freedom of speech and association.
(iv) Activities of pressure groups: By encouraging the activities of pressure groups and other voluntary organisations.
(v) Opinion Poll: Encouraging the use of opinion polls on issues of general importance.
(vi) Existence of political parties: Will help to mould the opinion of the people.
(vii) Responsible and responsive: For eg. Social institutions such as families and religious centres should be able to demonstrate these.
5) – Legislative control
Local governments are established by an act of parliament or decree stating their functions, powers and limitations. Their operations are thus guided by these laws. Furthermore, the legislature could amend these laws or investigate the performance of, or allegations about particular local governments.
– Control By Public:
Complaints Commission Dissatisfied members of the public can seek redress through the public complaints commission, where their rights and liberties are violated by local government employees. The commission could investigate the activities of such employees and recommend punitive or corrective
– Financial control
The supervising department is empowered to approve or reject local government budgetary estimates.
They may not introduce new rates or levies, implement new projects or obtain internal or external loans without approval by the supervising ministry. Their accounts are also audited by the central government
– Judicial control
Local governments are legal entities which can sue and be sued. Courts can call local governments or their officials to order if theybreach any law establishing or guiding them.
– Administrative control
The power of supervising the activities of local governments is delegated to the ministry or department responsible for local government. The department is empowered to approve their annual budgetary estimates, major projects, strategies of implementation and bylaws before they take effect.
(7) [Pick Any FIVE]
(i) It retained the British Queen as the constitutional ceremonial Head of the State.
(ii) The Supreme Court was not the court of last resort; the judicial committee of the Privy Council in Britain continued to act as the highest court of appeal for Nigeria.
(iii) The constitution was weak because members of the House of Senate were appointed by the regional government not elected. They therefore became stooges and surrogates of the regional government.
(iv) The constitution did not give adequate treatment and definition of the issue of creation of more regions in Nigeria. This over-sight created problems when an attempt was made to create a mid-Western region out of the Western region.
(v) The Constitution failed to specify the number of ministers to be appointed and, whether or not their appointment should reflect the federal character of Nigeria.
(vi) The constitution succeeded only in granting political independence to Nigeria but failed to address important political issues such as the minority problem and the political integration of the country.
(vii) A glance at the distribution of powers between the central government and the regional governments showed that the Federal Government was more powerful than the regional governments.
(i)It provided for a Bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and House of Representatives and It made provision for citizenship in Nigeria.
(ii)It granted emergency power to the central government and it provided for a parliamentary system of government.
(iii) It made provision for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedom and it granted the federal Supreme Court the power of judicial review.
(iv)It created the Judicial Service Commission with the power to appoint judges and all residual powers were placed in the hands of the regions.
(v)It provided for the position of Governor-General who represented the Queen of England and the Prime Minister and it stated the basis for revenue allocation.
9 Highlight five positive impacts of British and French colonial administration in West Africa.
9) (i) Military and technical aid
(iii)Development of political parties
(v)Emergency of the press
(i) Military and technical aid: Some farmers colonial territories especially the French territories, receives military and technical aid from their former colonial masters
(ii)common language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among the colonial territories. English was developed and spoken in British territories while French developed in French territories.
(iii)Development of political parties: One of the positive impact of colonialism in British and French West Africa was the development of political parties. Many of these political parties emerged to champion the struggle for political independence.
(iv)Common wealth: This organisation was formed to bring together all former colonies under Britain and Britain itself. They cooperate among themselves in different areas of human endeavour eg sports ,scholarship programme etc.
(v)Emergency of the press: Another positive impact of colonialism was the emergence of the press,especially the print media (Newspaper). The press developed and became the mouthpiece of the people in the struggle for political independence.
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