Waec 2023 Agricultural Science Answers



Credit in agricultural finance involves the provision of loans that must be repaid by borrowers, while subsidies are grants or direct payments provided by the government to support specific agricultural objectives without the requirement of repayment.


Credit is a situation whereby sellers allow buyers to take possession of goods and services and pay later while subsidy is a situation whereby part of the money a buyer is meant to pay for good is paid for by the government

(i) Fertilizers
(ii) Seeds
(iii) Livestock feed
(iv) Research and development
(v) Crop insurance
(vi) Training and Education
(vii) Agricultural machinery
(viii) Energy
(ix) Pesticides and Herbicides
(x) Labour

(i) Tire Inspection
(ii) Regular oil changes
(iii) Belt inspection and adjustment
(iv) Hydraulic system maintenance
(v) Fuel filter replacement
(vi) Greasing and lubrication of moving parts
(vii) Cleaning and replacing air filters
(viii) Inspecting and tightening bolts and connections

(i) Read and understand the operator’s manual
(ii) Wear appropriate protective gear
(iii) Conduct pre-operation checks
(iv) Always check the water level
(v) Avoid loose clothing and jewelry
(vi) Use safety guards and shields
(vii) Clear the work area
(viii) Follow safe refueling practices like turning off the machinery before refueling


1a. Credit in Agricultural Finance:
Credit refers to the provision of financial resources, typically in the form of loans or lines of credit, to farmers or agricultural enterprises to meet their financial needs.

Subsidy in Agricultural Finance: A subsidy is a financial support mechanism provided by the government or relevant authorities to reduce the cost of inputs, encourage production, or assist farmers in meeting their agricultural objectives

1b. i.Fertilizers
iii.Irrigation Systems
iv.Pesticides and Agrochemicals
v.Machinery and Equipment

I.Oil and Filter Changes
ii.Air Filter Cleaning/Replacement
iii.Fuel Filter Replacement
iv.Cooling System Maintenance
V.Battery Inspection and Maintenance
vi.Tire Inspection and Maintenance

I.Familiarize Yourself with the Machinery
ii.Wear Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
iii.Check Before using the machinery, perform pre-operational checks to ensure it is in good working condition.
iv.Maintain Safe Distance and Communicationaccidents or collisions
v.Follow Safe Operating Practices When operating farm machinery, adhere to safe operating practices.

Subsidy is financial assistance provided to farmers to reduce agricultural costs, while credit refers to financial support extended to farmers in the form of loans for agricultural activities.

– Fertilizers
– Seeds
– Pesticides
– Agricultural machinery and equipment
– Irrigation systems

– Regular oil changes and filter replacements.
– Inspection and replacement of belts and hoses.
– Battery maintenance.
– Tire maintenance.
– Cleaning and greasing.
– Regular engine and fluid inspections.

– Read the manual and follow instructions.
– Wear proper personal protective equipment (PPE).
– Keep a safe distance from moving parts.
– Ensure proper training and skill for operation.
– Regularly inspect and maintain machinery for safety.


Agricultural ecology is the study of how plants, animals, and the environment interact within agricultural systems. It focuses on understanding the relationships between agricultural practices, the health of ecosystems, and the well-being of both humans and nature.

Or use this

Agricultural ecology is a field of study that examines the ecological processes and interactions within agricultural systems. It involves understanding the relationships between plants, animals, microorganisms, and their environment in the context of agriculture.

An Ecosystem refers to the natural environment in which crops, livestock, and other organisms interact with each other and with their surroundings. It includes the plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, water, and air within a farming area.


An Ecosystem refers to the complex network of interactions between living organisms (plants, animals, microorganisms) and their physical environment (soil, water, air) within a specific agricultural area. It involves the flow of energy, the cycling of nutrients, and the interdependence of different components.

{Choose any two}
(i) plants.
(ii) animals.
(iii) decomposers.

{Choose any three}
(i) Light
(ii) air
(iii) soil
(iv) nutrients.

– Ensure ventilation.
– Guard against pests.
– Keep bags elevated.
– Maintain cleanliness.
– Follow FIFO system.

– Petunias
– Marigolds
– Begonias
– Geraniums


Rootknot nematode/Meloidogyne spp.

Nematodes are soil borne so are transmitted through soil movement and run-off water

(i)Enlargement of certain cells of the roots in the form of knots
(ii)Retarded growth

(i)Crop rotation
(ii)Use resistant varieties
(iii)Use nematicides such as furadan
(iv)Use of African marigold (biological control)
(v)Heavy doses of organic matter application
(vi)Soil sterilization

(i) Excessive application of fertilizers can cause soil acidity
(ii) Excessive of it’s application can also reduce the activities of the soil organisms
(iii) Excessive application may also hinder the growth of crops

(i)It leads to reduction of organic matter
(ii)It leads to loss of soil nutrients
(iii)It upsets the ecosystem or ecological balance

(i)It exposes the soil to erosion
(ii)It destroys the soil structure
(iii)It causes poor growth and regenerative capacity of vegetation

(i)It is used for crop production
(ii) Livestock production
(iii) Fisheries


(i) Clearing
(ii) Tillage
(iii) Ridging
(iv) Planting

(i) It serves as food
(ii) It can be utilized as a source of animal feed
(iii) Cassava tubers can be processed into various food products
(iv) Cassava plants are utilized in certain regions for their ability to improve soil fertility, control erosion, and prevent nutrient depletion.
(v) In some traditional medicinal practices, cassava tubers and leaves are used for their potential therapeutic properties
(vi) Cassava starch can be used to produce biodegradable packaging materials
(vii) Cassava tubers have industrial applications in various sectors like in the textile industry for sizing fabrics and improving their quality.

Expected number of yam plants = Number of planting spots per hectare * Total area of the farmland
Expected number of yam plants = 10,000 * 1.5 = 15,000
Therefore, the expected number of yam plants on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 15,000 plants.

Total weight = Expected number of yam plants * Average weight of each yam tuber
Total weight = 15,000 * 3.5 kg = 52,500 kg
Therefore, the total weight of the yam tubers harvested on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 52,500 kilograms (or 52.5 metric tons).

Diet refers to the overall composition and combination of feeds and ingredients that an animal consumes over a certain period WHILE a ration, on the other hand, is a specific amount or quantity of feed that is provided to an animal during a single feeding event or within a specific time period, typically a day.


5* ) Fill in the Gap.
I) diarrhea
ii. Clean and disinfect pens
iii. prevent overcrowding
Iv. Swine influenza
V. proper ventilation
Vi.bio security measures
vii. Fever, lethargy, and anorexia
Ix. culling of infected animals
x. disinfection of premises

5b) i.To lay eggs
ii.To release pheromones

5bii) Two functions of the worker bee are:
i. To gather nectar and pollen
ii.To care for the young

5c.) 1. To retain moisture
2. To regulate temperature
3. To prevent pests
4.To reduce odour
5. To prevent rainwater from entering



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