Neco 2023 Animal Husbandry Essay & Objective Answers

Neco 2023 Animal Husbandry Essay & Objective Answers

Neco 2023 Animal Husbandry Essay & Objective Answers

Schedule Time;

Friday, 4th August 2023
Animal Husbandry (Objective & Essay) 10:00am – 12:00noon















INSTRUCTIONS: Answer four (4) questions




(1a) The oestrus cycle refers to the reproductive cycle in female mammals, including humans, in which the body goes through various hormonal and physiological changes to prepare for potential pregnancy. It is also commonly referred to as the menstrual cycle in humans.



(i) Immunoglobulins: Colostrum contains high levels of immunoglobulins, specifically IgG. These antibodies help provide passive immunity to the newborn animals.

(ii) Growth Factors: Colostrum also contains various growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1, to help in the growth and development of the newborn animal.




(i) Regulates the uterine contractions during labor.

(ii) Stimulates production of milk.

(iii) Regulates reproductive hormone function.

(iv) Promotes the growth and development of the fetus.

(v) Helps regulate estrous cycles in animals.




(i) Abdominal contractions

(ii) Restlessness

(iii) Behavioral changes

(iv) Dilated vulva

(v) Rupture of amniotic sac

(vi) Firm enlargement of the udder.






Livestock management refers to the practice of controlling and caring for domesticated animals, specifically those raised for agricultural purposes. It involves various techniques and strategies to ensure the health, welfare, and productivity of the animals.



Ear notching: Ear notching is a permanent method of identification used for livestock. Notches are cut into the farm animal’s ear using a sharp blade or special tool, with each notch indicating a specific ID number.



Branding: Branding is a permanent method of identification used for livestock. A hot branding iron is used to burn a mark or symbol onto the skin of the farm animal’s hide. This method of identification helps to distinguish animals on a cattle ranch or farm.




(i) To prevent the cow from thrashing around or moving too much.

(ii) To minimize the risk of injury to both the cow and the human handling it.

(iii) To reduce the amount of stress the cow experiences during the process.

(iv) To ensure that the notches are made in the correct place.

(v) To make sure that the notching procedure is quick and efficient.




(i) Less painful and traumatic for animals.

(ii) Quicker healing and recovery times.

(iii) Reduced risk of infection and disease.

(iv) Minimal bleeding and lower risk of blood loss.

(v) More effective with less effort needed from handlers.





Soilage refers to the act of feeding livestock with freshly harvested green forage crops, such as grasses or legumes, without drying or fermenting them.



In Tabular Form




(i) Concentrates are nutrient dense.

(ii) Concentrates are usually energy sources.

(iii) Concentrates are usually more expensive than roughages.

(iv) Concentrates are high in starch and simple sugars.

(v) Concentrates are generally low in fiber content.




(i) Roughages are less nutrient dense.

(ii) Roughages are usually sources of fiber.

(iii) Roughages are usually less expensive than concentrates.

(iv) Roughages are high in fiber and complex carbohydrates.

(v) Roughages are generally low in starches and simple sugars.




(i) Decreased appetite and feed intake.

(ii) Increased fractures/injuries.

(iii) Poor reproductive performance.

(iv) Impaired growth rate.

(v) Skeletal deformations.




(i) Soybean meal

(ii) Meat and bone meal

(iii) Fish meal

(iv) Monocalcium phosphate

(v) Defluorinated rock phosphate





Animal improvement refers to the process of selectively breeding animals with desirable traits in order to enhance their overall productivity, performance, or genetic makeup. This can involve traits such as increased fertility, growth rate, milk production, meat quality, disease resistance, or any other trait that is considered beneficial to the breed.




(i) Increased productivity: Enhancing traits like growth rate, milk production, and egg-laying capacity.

(ii) Improved disease resistance: Breeding animals with improved resistance to common diseases and parasites.

(iii) Optimal nutritional requirements: Selecting animals with ideal metabolic requirements for efficient processing of feed.

(iv) Increased fertility: Enhancing the ability of animals to reproduce more efficiently.

(v) Improved behaviour: Selecting animals which display desirable social behaviour or temperament.



(i) Linebreeding

(ii) Outbreeding

(iii) Inbreeding

(iv) Crossbreeding




(i) Artificial insemination allows a wider range of genetic material to be used, reducing the risk of inbreeding depression.

(ii) Artificial insemination is cost-effective as it eliminates the need to purchase and transport breeding stock, and reduces operational costs.

(iii) Artificial insemination eliminates any potential transmission of disease between individuals, reducing the spread of disease from male to female breeding stock.

(iv) Artificial insemination enables more efficient reproduction, allowing farmers to produce more stock at a faster rate.

(v) Artificial insemination allows farmers to select superior genetic material for breeding, increasing quality and productivity.






(i) Pasture management: Regularly moving livestock to different pastures can limit their exposure to liver fluke-infested areas.

(ii) Strategic Deworming: Follow a strategic deworming program, as advised by a veterinarian, and include an effective dewormer against fluke in the program.

(iii) Crop rotation: Incorporating crop rotation into the farming system can help reduce the multiplication of liver fluke.

(iv) Fertilizer Management: Properly manage manure and fertilizers to keep them from running off into water sources.

(v) Drainage: Use effective drainage systems to keep the soil dry and discourage the presence of snails, which are intermediate hosts for liver fluke.




(i) Ticks can improve pasture quality by grazing on weeds, reducing the need for chemical controls.

(ii) The tick’s saliva can reduce inflammation and itching caused by other insects, helping animals heal faster.

(iii) Ticks can act as a natural parasite control, reducing the need for other chemical treatments.

(iv) Ticks can act as a source of income for farmers due to their medicinal properties.

(v) Ticks can be used as a form of biocontrol, preying on other pests such as grasshoppers, mites, and flies.



Causal Organism: The bacterium Bacillus anthracis is the causative organism of anthrax.



Symptoms: Symptoms of anthrax in cattle may include sudden death, fever, rapid respiration and pulse, loss of appetite, weakness, tremors, bloating, constipation, and edema of the neck and underbelly.



Methods of Transmission: Anthrax can be transmitted through contact with the infected tissue or body fluids of an animal or contact with infected soil.



Control Measure: Vaccination of livestock is the most effective prev entive measure against anthrax in cattle. Other preventive measures include proper disposal of carcasses, control of vectors, and quarantine of affected areas.





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