Neco 2023 Agric Science Practical Answers

Neco 2023 Agric Science Practical Answers


(1a) Specimen A – Watering can

Specimen B – plier

Specimen C – Knapsack sprayer



(i) A watering can is typically a small handheld container with a spout for pouring water while a knapsack sprayer is a backpack-like device with a larger capacity for holding liquid and a spraying mechanism.

(ii) A watering can relies on gravity to pour water while a knapsack sprayer uses either manual pumping or a motorized mechanism to create pressure for spraying the liquid.

(iii) A watering can is used for precisely pouring water onto specific plants or areas while a knapsack sprayer is used to spray liquid over a larger area ensuring even coverage.

(iv) A watering can is mainly used for watering plants while a knapsack sprayer can be used for multiple purposes such as applying pesticides fertilizers or herbicides.




(i) Watering plants in gardens or pots.

(ii) Providing a controlled and targeted water supply to seedlings and delicate plants.

(iii) Transporting water for indoor or outdoor plants.

(iv) Can be used for decorative purposes like pouring water into a fountain.




(i) Gripping and holding objects firmly.

(ii) Bending or twisting wires and other materials.

(iii) Cutting through wires or thin metal.

(iv) Can be used as a multifunctional tool in various industries including electrical work plumbing and mechanical repairs.


(1d) (i) Read and understand the instructions and safety guidelines provided by the manufacturer.

(ii) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves goggles and a mask.

(iii) Calibrate the sprayer to ensure the correct dilution ratio and application rate of the liquid being sprayed.

(iv) Inspect the sprayer for any leaks damaged parts or clogs before use. Clean and maintain the sprayer regularly to ensure its proper functioning.



(i) Regular maintenance and cleaning can prevent rust corrosion or damage increasing the lifespan of the tools.

(ii) Well-maintained tools function optimally increasing productivity and reducing effort or time required to complete tasks.

(iii) Regular maintenance ensures that the tools are safe to use reducing the risk of accidents or injuries.

(iv) Proper maintenance can reduce the need for repairs or replacements saving money in the long run.






Specimen D – litmus paper

Specimen E – cow dungs

Specimen F – limestone

Specimen G – clayey soil (powdery form)



(i) Preparation: Take a small sample of the clayey soil and mix it with distilled water to create a clay-water mixture.

(ii) Testing: Dip the litmus paper into the clay-water mixture and observe the color change. Blue litmus paper turns red in acidic conditions while red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline conditions. The observed color change indicates the pH level of the soil.




(i) Organic matter and nutrient supply

(ii) Improved soil structure

(iii) Enhanced microbial activity

(iv) Increased moisture retention

(v) Weed suppression:

(vi) pH balance




(i) Particle size

(ii) Texture

(iii) Water holding capacity

(iv) Plasticity

(v) Stickiness

(vi) Low permeability



(i) pH adjustment: Limestone is commonly used to neutralize acidic soils by raising the pH level making the soil more suitable for plant growth.

(ii) Soil remineralization: Limestone contains essential minerals such as calcium and magnesium which can be added to the soil to replenish nutrient levels.

(iii) Improving soil structure: Limestone helps improve soil structure by reducing compaction and increasing water infiltration.

(iv) Buffering capacity: Limestone has a buffering capacity meaning it helps maintain a stable pH level in the soil reducing pH fluctuations.

(v) Fertilizer filler: Limestone is sometimes used as a filler in fertilizers to provide additional nutrients and improve their spreadability.

(vi) Livestock feed supplement: Limestone is added to livestock feed to provide calcium and promote healthy bone development in animals.





(3a) Specimen H – yam tuber

Specimen I – casava tuber

Specimen J – orange fruit



(i) Minisetts or seed yams

(ii) Whole yam tubers

(iii) Vine cuttings

(iv) Tissue culture plantlets


(3c) Minisetts: Minisetts are small sections of yam tubers that contain one or two buds. These minisetts are planted directly into the soil and each bud is capable of producing a new yam plant.



(i) Cassava mosaic disease (CMD)

(ii) Cassava bacterial blight (CBB)

(iii) Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD)

(iv) Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD)



(i) Cassava flour

(ii) Cassava starch

(iii) Tapioca pearls

(iv) Cassava chips



(i) Sweet potatoes

(ii) Potatoes

(iii) Taro

(iv) Jerusalem artichokes


(3g) (i) Hilling up

(ii) weed control



(i) Citrus psyllids

(ii) Scales

(iii) Thrips

(iv) Citrus peelminer

(v) Fruit flies




(4a) Identify specimens K, L and M.

K: Groundnut Cake

L: Hides and Skin

M: Digestive Tract of a Bird


(4b) (i) Tanning

(ii) Dyeing


(4c) (i) Hides and skins are used in the production of leather goods such as shoes, bags, belts, and other accessories, which have a high demand in the market.

(ii) Farmers can sell hides and skins to tanneries or leather processing industries, generating income for themselves and contributing to the overall economic growth of the country.

(iii) The leather industry provides employment opportunities for people involved in the tanning, dyeing, manufacturing, and marketing of leather products, thus promoting job creation and economic development.


(4d) Name four parts of M.

(i) Crop

(ii) Gizzard

(iii) Intestine

(iv) Cloaca


(4e) (i) Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)


(4f) (i) Groundnut cake is rich in protein, which is essential for the growth and development of animals.

(ii) Groundnut cake is also a good source of energy due to its high fat content. Animals require energy for various metabolic processes and physical activities.



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