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Monday 18th July 2022
Government (Objective & Essay) 2:00pm – 4:40pm
*NECO GOVERNMENT QUESTIONS*
*ANSWER JUST 2 FROM THIS SECTION A*
1(a) Define a bill.
b) State and explain the five stages through which a bill must pass before it becomes a law.
2. Discuss six factors that limit the application of rule of law in a sovereign state.
3. In six ways, differentiate between a citizen and an alien
4. Identify and explain six functions of an electoral commission in a democratic state.
*SECTION B.. ANSWERS 3 QUESTIONS.*
5. Explain six reasons why democratic government is more popular than administration.
6(a) Define local government authority.
6b) Identify and explain five features of 1976 local government reform in Nigeria.
7. State and explain six reasons for the success of the indirect rule in northern Nigeria during the colonial administration.
8. Discuss six agreements reached at the London Constitutional Conference of 1957.
9. Explain six factors responsible for the success of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries since inception.
10) Itemize and discuss six functions performed by the Secretary General of the United Nations.
SECTION A (ANSWER JUST 2 QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION)
(1a) A bill is a proposed law under consideration of the legislative arm which later be passed into law by the approval of the executive.
(1b) (i) First reading:
This is the first stage of passing bill into law which requires the presentation of the drafted bill to the parliament. The bill is read to the hearing of the members of the legislature by the clerk of the house. After the title of the bill is read and there is no opposition, it will be printed into leaflets and distributed among the members for proper assessment before the second reading.
(ii) Second reading:
This is the stage which the bill will be deliberated and debated on. The presenter of the bill will be invited to explain the purpose of the bill and defend it. After which, the members will vote the bill to the next stage. If the bill receives majority votes, it will move to the next stage and if not, it will end without any amendment.
(iii) The committee stage:
Here, the bill is passed to one or more committees in the house for necessary amendment and discussion. There are different committees in the house which deliberate on different matters.
(iv) Report stage:
This is the stage in which the various findings about the bill will be documented during the of amendment. The findings or reports about the bill will be read by the speaker or Chairman of the standing committees.
(v) Third reading:
This is the last stage in which proper assessment and scrutinization will be carried out to ensure that the bill is properly amended. During this stage, another and final vote will be carried out before the bill is presented to the executive for approval. Once the assent is given to the bill by the executive president, then it becomes law
(i) State of emergency:
When a state of emergency is declared in a country or state, citizens will find some of their rights denied in order to restore peace and order.
(ii) Custom and tradition:
The application of the rule of law may be limited in some cases when the custom and tradition of the people must be respected and preserved.
(iii) Diplomatic immunity:
Due to the fact that ambassadors and high commissioners enjoy some immunities and cannot be prosecuted or punished in the country where they are serving also pose a great limitation to the application of the rule of law.
(iv) Legislative immunity:
This also undermines the application of the rule of law due to the fact that the members of the parliament cannot be sued or prosecuted for any false or libellous statement made in the house whereas an ordinary man on the street can be punished for the same statement.
(v) Delegated legislation:
The delegation of law making power to some bodies other than the legislature often brings about complexity of law and abuse of such power which may lead to violation of fundamental human rights of the citizens even without the opportunity of seeking redress.
(vi) The type of government:
The type and system of government practiced in a country will determine the degree of the application of the rule of law. In a country where military or unitary system of government is adopted, there will be minimum application of the rule of law.
– A citizen owes allegiance to his country.
– A citizen has political and fundamental rights.
– At the time of war a citizen can be compelled by the government to join military service.
– A citizen automatically acquires the citizenship of his country by virtue of his being born in the country, an alien can only become a citizen through a process of naturalization and registration.
– A citizen’s citizenship cannot be revoked even if he commits a crime, as it is not a privileged status.
– A citizen have a greater sense of security.
– An alien does not owe allegiance.
– An alien does not have any right to participate in government process.
– An alien cannot be compelled to undertake military activities.
– An application by an alien for naturalization may be rejected by the government of the country of his domicile.
– An alien citizenship of a naturalized Citizen can be revoked if he is convicted of a serious crime.
– An alien live under a state of fear (fear of arrest, fear of mob attack, fear of destruction of property etc).
(4) – Organizing and Conducting Elections
– Ensuring free and fair elections
– Announcement of Election Results
– Honesty and Fair Play
– Headed by a Chairman
– Fixed Tenure of Office
– Organizing and Conducting Elections: The Electoral commission has the sole responsibility of organizing and conducting all elections in a political system.
– Ensuring free and fair elections: It is also the specific duty of the commission to conduct Free and Fair Elections in a country.
– Announcement of Election Results: The body only, is permitted by law to announce election results.
– Honesty and Fair Play: An electoral commission is expected to be honest and just in decision making especially with the conduct of the elections.
– Headed by a Chairman: The commission is controlled by the chairman, while other members are appointed.
– Fixed Tenure of Office: The composition of the electoral commission has a stipulated tenure of office.
SECTION B (ANSWER JUST 3 QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION)
(5) (i) Free and fair election:
Democracy is Characterised by regular and periodic free and fair election. In a democratic state, the citizens cast their votes and elect those that will represent their interest in various political offices as a means of indirect participation in running the affairs of the state but in a military system, it is devoid of free and fair election but selection by the supreme leader.
(ii) Application of rule of law:
Democracy recognizes the equality of all citizens or classes of people in the country regardless of their economic, political or social status as it is expressed by the rule of law and due process.
(iii) Existence of political parties:
Democracy recognizes the establishment and existence of political parties preferably multiple party system in which individual parties present candidates who compete for power in the general election.
(iv) Existence and respect of fundamental human right:
In a democratic system of government, fundamental human rights are recognized, protected and respected in all aspects of life which is not respected in the military system.
(v) Supremacy of the constitution:
Democracy recognizes the supremacy of the constitution which determine the operationa and functions of all sectional groups and organizations in the state, showing that nobody is above the law but the constitution.
6a) Local government Authority is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state that is officially responsible for all the public services and facilities in a particular state or areas.
6b)(PICK ANY 5)
i) Uniform system of local government:
There was the introduction of a uniform system of local government throughout the country.
ii) Federal government involvements: The
federal government became directly involved in local government administration.
iii) Service board/ commission: There was the introduction of local government service board/commission in all the states.
iv) Statutory functions: The local
governments were given specific statutory functions to perform.
v) Single tier: All the local governments were made all- purpose single tier local government.
vi) Appointment: There was the appointment of full-time chairmen and supervisory councillors.
vii) Condition of service: The condition of service oflocal government staff was unified with that of their counter-parts in state and federal civil service.
(7) (i)Preservation of existing cultural values:
The system of indirect rule was a success in the North because it preserved the existing cultural values of the native and also assisted in improving them to gradually accept or adapt to a modern system of government.
(ii) The imposition and collection of tax:
The administration of indirect rule took the issue of tax collection very serious which was already in existence in the North.
Majority of the people in the North were illiterate as such they could not resist or challenge the colonial imposition or rule of the foreign power.
(iv) Centralization of power:
The administrative system in the North was highly centralised and it was thus adopted and accepted by the British through the use of the indirect rule.
(v) Obedience to traditional authorities:
Northern had great respect to constituted authorities and that made it easy for the indirect rule to be used to govern the people.
(vi) Training of local administrators:
The indirect rule aided in the training of the local leaders in the North in its method of administration.
8) – Structure of the Legislature at the Centre:
The conference agreed that there should be a bicameral legislature at the centre. That is, there should be a Senate and a House of Representatives for the country. The Senate should have twelve (12) members from each region respectively and four from Lagos.
– Creation of Office of Prime Minister:
There was agreement among the parties at the conference that the post of Prime Minister should be created. The Governor-General was given the power to appoint as Prime Minister the leader of the party with the largest majority in the House of Representatives.
– Regional Self-government:
The conference acceded to the demands of the regions to be self-governing. Consequently, the Eastern and Western Regions achieved self government in August 1957 and the Northern Region in March, 1959.
– Creation of House of Chiefs for the Eastern Region:
The conference discussed the request for a second chamber for the Eastern Region and agreed that a House of Chiefs comprising 60 members should be established in the region. This was meant to bring the region in line with the other regions, which were already bicameral.
– Status of Lagos:
The conference observed that there were conflicting proposals on the status of Lagos as the federal capital. Both the Northern and Eastern Regions argued that Lagos should have a separate status but delegates from the Western Region contended that Lagos should be part of the region.